For example, in the 1900’s, the average peak age for men was 50 and 57 for females. Now men can expect to live up to 78 years old and 82 years for women. The survival rate in the 1900’s was extremely low and baby’s were not as likely to live past their first year. However babies that are born in this century are far more likely to live through 1 year of age and even better, a full life. Another reason which contributes to the decline of deaths is greatly improved public health.
This means women now have the choice whether to have a family or have a career. This have resulted in women having their first child at a later age as they have chose to focus on their career. The age that women now have their first child has gone up from 24 to 27.3 since the beginning of the 20th century. Laws such as compulsory schooling and the child labour introduced in the 20th century has now introduced the idea that children are no longer an asset to their families but an economic liability. This means children are now expensive to have and people do not have the money to have as many children as they used too.
A change that has happened to childbearing since the 1970's is that over four in ten children are now born outside of marriage, which is five times more than it was in 1971. This means that more children are being born into lone-parent families or cohabilitating families. A reason for this is that there has been a huge decline in the stigma that used to be held over births outside marriage and also a increase in cohabiliatation. An example of this is that only one third of 18-24 year olds think marriage should come before parenthood, meaning that the rise in births outside of marriage is more to do with the increase in cohabilitating couples than it is to do with single parents. Another change that has happened in childbearing since the 1970's is that women are having fewer children and children later in life.
Examine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the fall in the death rate since 1900 (24 marks) The overall death rate in the UK has remained pretty much stable since 1900, being around 600,000. Death rate is the number of deaths per 1000 per population per year. In 1900 there was of course a much smaller population than of today, which would have meant the death rate would have been out of a smaller amount of people. Since the 1900, the death rate has fallen. In 1900, the death rate was 19, however, in 2007, it stood at 10.
The differences between males and females seems to be due to gender or social factors. The difference would be greater if women did not have a high incidence of cancers of the breast, cervix and uterus (Scambler, 1997). Main changes. Child bearing patterns have changed so that women have fewer children further apart and the medical care for pregnant women has improved. In the UK and USA the number of live births has decreased from 5 per woman in the 1880’s to 2 in the 2000’s.
Over the last forty years marriage and cohabitation patterns have drastically changed due to various reasons and changes in society. Firstly I will look at the changes in first marriages. In 1951 there were approximately 330,000 first marriages in the UK, whereas in 2009 there were only 190,000. This clearly shows the dramatic decline in first marriages. The reasons for this decrease are due to a change in social norms and a decline in social stigma.
Even though there are many ethical beliefs that have always been against this policy, the rule has been estimated to have reduced population growth in the country of 1.3 billion by as much as 300 million people over its first twenty years. This rule has caused a disregard for female infants. Abortion, neglect, abandonment, and even infanticide have been known to occur to female infants, due to the policy. As family’s were restricted to only one child, most of them wanted boys, as it was considered in their culture that boys would look after their parents and carry the family name. The result of such drastic family planning has resulted in the ratio of 114 males for every 100 females among babies from birth through to children at the age of four years.
The death rate has fallen since 1900, which could be due to improvements in healthcare or the improved nutrition which has accounted for the reduction in death rates. However there are consequences for the decreasing death rate and one major consequence of this is the ageing population. The UK date rate refers to the overall number of deaths per year. In 2010, the death rates decreased to 493,242 which is a reduction of the death rate from 600,000 deaths per year in the early 1900s. There have been several reasons for the decline in death rate, and one of the reasons include the improved nutrition that the UK has achieved during the 1900s.
After the 'baby boom' after the Second World War, the UK's population experienced much less births tham before. In 2004, 716 000 children were born, which is 21% fewer than in 1071. This decline of the birth rate may be caused by the decline in the infant mortality rate. More children survive the first years of their life because sanitation, medical care, water supplies and nutrition have imporved throughout the century. This meant that parents did not have the need to have lots of children to ensure that a few survived, and families got smaller.
The patterns of marriage, divorce and cohabitation over the past 40 years has varied quite significantly. In 1972, the highest ever number of couples (480,000) since the Second World War got married. Now, obviously there is a reason for this. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), this was due to the baby boom generation of the 1950s reaching marriageable age and these people choosing to marry at a younger age compared with previous generations. However, after this period, the number of marriages in England and Wales then went into decline.