In 2006, one in five women aged 45 were childless – double that of twenty years previously. Since women are choosing to not have children – the birth rate and there fore family size has fallen since 1900. Another factor is the decline in the infant mortality rate – the number of infants who die before their first birthday per 1000 babies born alive per year. Many sociologists argue that a fall in IMR leads to a fall in birth rate because if many infants die, parents have more children to replace those they have lost and thus increasing the birth rate. This is proven since in 1900 the IMR in the UK was 154 and by 2007 it had sharply declined to 5, owing to many factors including improved housing and better sanitation.
These changes have allowed women able to choose whether to have children at all or delay childbearing. Sociologists argue that infant mortality rate has led to fall of birth rates because parents have more kids to replace the ones they’ve lost. By dissimilarity infant survival means that parents will have fewer children. During the 20th century, in the UK infant mortality rate began to fall. This was caused by many various reasons which include; improved housing and better sanitation, better nutrition better clinical services for both children and
The patterns of marriage, divorce and cohabitation over the past 40 years has varied quite significantly. In 1972, the highest ever number of couples (480,000) since the Second World War got married. Now, obviously there is a reason for this. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), this was due to the baby boom generation of the 1950s reaching marriageable age and these people choosing to marry at a younger age compared with previous generations. However, after this period, the number of marriages in England and Wales then went into decline.
Moreover because of these birth control techniques family sizes have decreased as more and more women now have more control over births than they did in the 1900’s, so they are choosing to have less children as a result of this. Secondly women’s position in society has changed; they have become more equal to men and are given more equal opportunities in workplaces, as Rapoport (1969) termed “dual-career
There have been many changes in the death and birth rate for many different reasons which have caused these rates to both increase and decrease throughout the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. In general the trend for birth rates since 1900 is that it has dropped from around 1.1 million to about 0.7 million in 2001. Deaths have generally stayed the same at around 0.6 million wavering back and forth. Fertility rates have also changed from 115 live births per 1000 women aged between 15 and 44 in 1900 to only 54.5 in 2001. Life expectancy in 1900 was only around 47 for men and 50 for women whereas it now in 2013 83 for men and 87 for women.
The differences between males and females seems to be due to gender or social factors. The difference would be greater if women did not have a high incidence of cancers of the breast, cervix and uterus (Scambler, 1997). Main changes. Child bearing patterns have changed so that women have fewer children further apart and the medical care for pregnant women has improved. In the UK and USA the number of live births has decreased from 5 per woman in the 1880’s to 2 in the 2000’s.
Item A states that only half as many people are getting married today. There are many reasons why marriage rates have decreased over the years. Religious significance has dropped dramatically in many western countries including the U.K. Many people no longer feel that marriage is essential. As less people are religious, they are more likely to cohabit or divorce without fear of ‘living a sin’.
There are many reasons for the changes in divorce rates since the 1969 such as the legal changes, the changing role and position of women, also how the expectations for marriage is different. It is shown that from 1969 until 1972, divorce rates had doubled from around 50,000 divorces in the UK. It had more than tripled to 170,000 in 2000. Despite this, divorce rates dropped in 1993 from 180,000 to 157,000 in 2001. We know that in the past divorce was very hard to get as it was only legal for the men to file a divorce and was socially unacceptable.
Teen mothers are more likely to drop out of school, remain unmarried, and live in poverty, their children are more likely to be born at low birth weight, grow up poor, live in single-parent households, experience abuse and neglect, and enter the child welfare system. Daughters of teen mothers are more likely to become teen parents themselves and sons of teen mothers are more likely to be incarcerated (Hoffman, 2006). All of this can be linked to the teenager’s lack of access to care, fear and misinformation (Brown, 2010). Demographics Nationwide in 2006, 750,000 women younger than twenty became pregnant. The pregnancy rate was 71.5 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15–19.
This changed after the Civil War, giving women their right to speak up and become more like men. The role of many women had change from a homemaker to being able to provide for the family by either getting a job. In addition, they were starting to be allowed to have a voice. Not only were they allowed to go out and start getting jobs, but the right to vote was also starting to come out. Without the changing role of women, things that we have in everyday life as American’s could possibly not exist.