Examine the key ideas and strength of Utilitarism.
Utilitarism is the state of being useful or beneficial, especially being able to perform several functions. According to Bentham utilitarism is known sometimes as a teleological theory in the sense that it concerns the goal of an action. An action is good or bad, right or wrong, depending on the outcome. Teological theories tend to rely on principle of utility which the measure of the usefulness, or fittingness for purpose, that an action may have. Utilitarians define ‘usefulness’ as in terms of happiness for the majority of people ‘’greatest happiness for the greatest number’’ meaning like the less pain for the greatest number. Maintaining the theory is the idea of psychological hedonism which this is avoiding pain and seeking pleasure are the main motivators of human being. Then bentham went out and thought and which actions can best promote pleasure and reduce pain. He did calculated this by the hedonic calculus (purity, remoteness, richness, duration, extent, intensity, certainty) which is examining the consequences of and action and working out the pleasure and pain involved. In the historical context it tell us that bentham made this studies because he wanted to create a theory that applied to everyone but leaving aside th religion. He was attempt to solve the problems of humanity through benevolent practicality, he put apart the religion and saw that human nature was seeking happiness in other happiness. Later on J.S Mill criticised bentham because he tried to measure pleasure in quantitative forms, bentham allowed for some action to be good or wrong he made exceptions he was not absolutist he was a example of act of utilitarian. Mill develop a better understanding of what happiness in human being is. Mill was influenced by aristoteles and used some of his ideas to develop his owns. He said the highest