For example, women now go out to work, just as men now help with housework and childcare. However Feminists reject the ‘March of Progress’ theory, and argue that women remain unequal within the family. Anne Oakley argues that we still live in a patriarchal (male dominated) society, and therefore women occupy a subordinate and dependant role within the family and wider society. In addition in Mary Boulton’s research backed this, she found that fewer than 20% of husbands had a majority role in childcare. Overall it could therefore be argued that rather than partners becoming more equal, women now have to carry a ‘dual burden’, whereby she is responsible for two jobs of unpaid or paid labour.
Additionally, many nurses only care for the old to earn their livings, so they are probably less enthusiastic than old people’s family. Secondly, the old usually consider family as a good environment motivating them to live happily. They can enjoy the cozy atmosphere when having meals with their family or playing with their grandchildren. Witnessing their children’s success and grandchildren’s maturity always gives them a great sense of self-fulfillment. On the other hand, living in old people homes, they cannot usually meet their family.
Case Analysis I – Wal-Mart Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. is consistently ranked on Fortune’s list of the 100 best companies to work for in the United States. Their employment had increased 50%, but the percentage of women employed decreased from 67% to 64%. Wal-Mart has a hierarchical human resource structure that is composed of different levels of management for different divisions and regions. Promotions are granted based on performance evaluations and certain minimum requirements. Certain minimum requirements could be waved in order to preserve the most talented employees.
A woman working in the same job as a man will usually earn less, despite the fact that she may have the same or better training, education, and skills required for the job ("Study Shows Female Managers in Britain Earn Less than Men, and Equality Could Be 57 Years Away." 2010). Women are consistently discriminated against in the workplace. Women only make 60 percent or less than their male counterparts in the same job position (Louis, 2010). Throughout history men are seen as the “strong/tough ones”; the belief is that they should be paid more than women in order to support their families (Loney, 2005).
Examine the factors affecting power relationships and the division of labour between couples Domestic labour is housework, childcare and paid work. In 1955, Parsons suggested that the husband and wife have different roles within the family; the man’s role was named instrumental. He is expected to achieve success at work and financially support the family whereas the wife was expected to look after the house, raise the children emotionally and cook. This was named the expressive role. Parsons said that these roles made things ‘nice and functional’.
As in performing these functions the family links up with other institutions, providing future pupils for education, workers for the economy, and so on. Murdock also argues that the family performs four basic functions which are; sexual, reproductive, economic and educational. From his study of 250 societies, he came to the conclusion that the performance of these functions was so vital that it is inevitable that families exist everywhere. Parsons’ list of functions is shorter; he sees them more as ‘basic and irreducible’. He claims that the family must provide the primary socialisation of children to certify the maintenance of society’s culture and the stabilisation of adult personalities - where responsibility for children gives emotional security and the family performs as a haven from the complications of the outside world.
To what extent is there equal division of domestic labouring the family? 24 marks The DDOL refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Parsons Argues that in a traditional nuclear family the roles of husband and wife are segregated, in his view the husband plays an instrumental role geared towards achieving success at work so he can provide for the family financially. The woman has an expressive role geared towards primary socialisation of children and meeting the family’s emotional needs. Parsons argued this division of labour is based on biological differences between men and women as women are naturally suited towards nurturing role and men to a powerful role.
Families with two working parents are more common today than in years past. The percentage of stay at home parents has been dwindling since WWII when women started entering the job force at a rapid rate. While there are plenty of working families, many families still have a stay at home parent, especially with very young children in the home. The differences between two career and single career families can be noticed in their economic situation, in their involvement with their children and in their recreational activities The financial situations of families with two working parents and families with one working parent vary. Two career households typically bring in more revenue.
This shows that conjugal roles between partners are becoming more equal.However,these sociologists have been criticized by Ann Oakley. In 1974 Ann Oakley pointed out that included in this figure were husbands who did very little, only had to perform one household chore a week. During the 1970’s she collected information on 40 married women who had one child or more under the age of 5 and were themselves aged between 20 and 30. Half of her sample was working class and half was middle class. She found greater equality for domestic tasks in the middle class than in the working class,
As the Civil Rights movement put discrimination on the nation's legal agenda, however, many women began to call for equal rights in employment regardless of gender. Converging Gender Roles The most striking finding is that women under 29 years old are just as likely as men to want jobs with more responsibility, for the first time in the survey's history. About two-thirds of each group wants more responsibility. In 1992, the survey found 80 percent of men under 29 wanted jobs with more responsibility, versus 72 percent of young women. The desire for more responsibility decreased for both genders in the 1997 survey, (to 61 percent for