Firstly, whether a family live in a symmetrical family or not will have an effect on the divisions of labour. March of Progress theorists (Liberal Feminists) such as Young and Willmott argue that family life is gradually improving for all its members, becoming more equal and democratic. For example, women now go out to work, just as men now help with housework and childcare. However Radical Feminists reject the ‘March of Progress’ theory, and argue that women remain unequal within the family. Anne Oakley argues that we still live in a patriarchal (male dominated) society, and therefore women occupy a subordinate and dependant role within the family and wider society.
For example, women now go out to work, just as men now help with housework and childcare. However Feminists reject the ‘March of Progress’ theory, and argue that women remain unequal within the family. Anne Oakley argues that we still live in a patriarchal (male dominated) society, and therefore women occupy a subordinate and dependant role within the family and wider society. In addition in Mary Boulton’s research backed this, she found that fewer than 20% of husbands had a majority role in childcare. Overall it could therefore be argued that rather than partners becoming more equal, women now have to carry a ‘dual burden’, whereby she is responsible for two jobs of unpaid or paid labour.
To what extent is there equal division of domestic labouring the family? 24 marks The DDOL refers to the roles that men and women play in relation to housework, childcare and paid work. Parsons Argues that in a traditional nuclear family the roles of husband and wife are segregated, in his view the husband plays an instrumental role geared towards achieving success at work so he can provide for the family financially. The woman has an expressive role geared towards primary socialisation of children and meeting the family’s emotional needs. Parsons argued this division of labour is based on biological differences between men and women as women are naturally suited towards nurturing role and men to a powerful role.
There have been many sociological studies which suggest a number of things about how equal men and women are in the home. One study carried out by Rosser and Harris was a study of family life in Swansea. The results state a range of things about women, both good and bad. For example, it assumes that women have frequent pregnancies so has a longer period of time away from work and that life is purely based on children. This is negative and a very sweeping statement about women because not all women want to have children; also it could suggest that women are less likely to be employed in comparison to men because they will spend a lot of time away from work.
The Second Shift: Gendered Norms and Household Labor In gathering essential data that would aid investigation of this subject, the study adopted an informal strategy. Findings gathered from interviewees conducted from various participants were compared. For my case, I interviewed my sister who works as a public relation manager in a reputable firm in the city. I documented some notes and compared the answers that I got with those noted down by my group members. I mainly focused on establishing how families share and undertake their daily duties essential in keeping the family going.
On the other hand, another group of sociologists believes that families are not symmetrical. This group are known as feminists. A non-symmetrical family is a family where the chores are not shared between couples and that women have to do more work compared to men. The feminists reject the “March of view progress.” Oakley, a sociologist, gives view as to what happens
Even though Marston died almost 70 years ago, much of what he saw happening with women is still going on today. American society looks at femininity as a weakness, and because of this many women try to deny their feminine tendencies. Some feminists are pushing for parents to treat girls exactly the same as they do boys, with the goal of eradicating femininity. Not only is this impossible, it would be detrimental to our society. Femininity, which is both a product of biology and a social construct, should be valued more by American society.
Feminists criticise Willmott and Young who suggested that we are currently in ‘The symmetrical family stage’ where chores are shared equally between the women and men. Feminists argue we are not in this stage as women still do the majority of housework. This is backed up by Anne Oakley’s finding that only 15% of men have a high level of participation in housework. Radical feminists argue that the patriarchal system needs to be overturned and to do this, women must learn to live independently. Delphy and Leonard (1992) argued that the inequalities between partners in the home are a result of the fact that the head of the household is almost always male.
They worked in paid employment as well as, within their homes. After the war women realised they had many choices and “Feminist’s’ fought for equality and women have now gained more rights. Family structure and values have changed and through effective methods of contraception, family sizes have become smaller. Women can remain single or marry and remain childless or combine marriage, children, and a career. Many women join the workforce for the ‘mental stimulation that home duties can’t provide’, as well as for the economic reasons.
I start this of essay with this question. This is a very tedious subject because I believe that women should go out into the world and work but I also believe that they should put their children first and spend time with them. Mothers should definitely go out to work because they can feel independent and secure. Some women who spend their entire adult life as housewives and stay at home moms become insecure and dependent because they feel that they that they have to depend on their husbands for almost everything and they don't have a life outside children and husband. Women should not always depend on their husbands to give them any money to buy their needs and their children's necessities.