The immune system work against the body a foreign virus enters the body; the body make antibodies to fight of the infection, but the immune system eventually work against itself by helping to destroy the myelin around the axons. The white matter of the brain and spinal cord are scared because of MS. What causes multiple sclerosis is a mystery. There hasn’t been an uncontested cause on MS only educated guesses and assumptions on the cause. Although, there hasn’t been a true cause, but there been consists associations that share a link with MS genetics and environment. MS is not listed as a hereditary disease.
The sexually transmissible disease gonorrhea has become increasingly resistant to treatment with antibiotics. What is the most likely scientific explanation? a) The gonorrhea bacteria learned to avoid antibiotics b) The gonorrhea bacteria changed their genes when they sensed antibiotics c) Antibiotic-sensitive gonorrhea bacteria died out, but antibiotic-resistant gonorrhea bacteria have flourished and persisted d) The antibiotic increased the mutation rate in the gonorrhea bacteria e) Both b and d 26. Which statement best describes the relationship between plants and animals on earth? a) Plants produce O2 and sugars from CO2 b) Animals produce CO2 and H2O from sugars and O2 c) Plants produce O2 and sugars and animals produce CO2 and H2O d) Animals produce O2 and sugars and plants produce CO2 and H2 27.
Antibiotics are produced by microorganism because they inhibit the growth of or kill other microorganisms; they are effective in low concentrations and act on specific species of microorganisms. 3. List four different ways that the antibiotics work to destroy or inhibit microorganisms and for each give named example of an antibiotic exhibiting this type of mechanism. (Note: you need to indicate the different processes or structures affected not simply variations or subsets of a process) Inhibit cell-wall formation: blocks a specific cross linking step in the bacteria in the process of reproduction. E.g.
A con is the higher risk of destruction of normal body flora. Drug allergy, drug toxicity, and creation of resistant microorganisms are also facts that need to be taken into consideration. Narrow-spectrum antimicrobials can only target either Gram-negative or Gram-positive microorganisms or a small variety of microorganisms at the time used. A con is that the bacteria have to be indentified first, before treatment can start. The pros are the reduced risk of creating resistant microorganisms and less chance of harming the host.
The Immune system normally functions to protect against foreign invaders by sending out certain cells that attack and destroy the ailment affecting your body, like an infection or a cold. But with lupus the immune system becomes hyperactive that the immune system begins attacking the body itself. What happens is the immune system sends out what is called B cells to attack an infection, but in Lupus the B cells live longer then they should. These B cells produce an antibody,
It has been noticed that the same drugs that suppress the immune system so that lupus can't attack the body also reduce a person's ability to fight off bacterial and viral infections. “If a person has more severe manifestations of the lupus that brought them to the hospital their symptoms are going to be treated with aggressive immunosuppressant’s, and that's going to increase their risk of infection," said Dr. Joan Merrill, medical director of the Lupus Foundation of America. It was also stated that more than likely, it’s going to increase their risk of re-hospitalization, and the treatments don't work, then they’re at risk of organ
Mosquitoes like other insects also produce salivary molecules that downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ to avoid immune reactions produced in the vertebrate host [21,37,38]. Thus, the downregulated immune responses will appear in the host after the insect has taken the blood from the host
Plants and animals naturally go through a process of selection for survival. Features that make the plant or animal more likely to live are passed along, and features that are not advantageous are weeded out. These genetic mutations occur over generations, though, making improvement a slow moving process. Scientists discovered that they could improve specific characteristics quickly by introducing foreign genes into an organism, such as those from plants, animals, and even viruses. For example, exposing a plant to a certain virus can make it more resistant to disease.
Viruses such as small pox, measles, and mumps that could invade your child’s body which in most circumstances will then be brought home and spread to other family members. Therefore, every child in America needs to be vaccinated before beginning school because vaccines can prevent disease, save lives, and alleviate sick days at school. Firstly, many of these contagious diseases in children are preventable. Many of the viruses that cause diseases such as measles, mumps, or small pox are very dangerous. Sometimes the symptoms are very mild or not even noticed.
The Ethical Issues of Using Monoclonal Antibodies and Vaccines There is a great variety of diseases that causes illness and death to human. So, we have usage of monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Antibodies are produced by B cells when the body is invaded by non-self material. Each antigen of the material will induce a different B cell to multiply and clone it self as to promote the most efficient way to kill the antigen. When a single type of antibody can be isolated and cloned, these antibodies are known as monoclonal antibodies.