TMA04 – Introduction to Social Science Question: Compare and contrast two social science views about the ordering of social life Understanding social order is central to social sciences as it largely determines human behaviour and allows individuals live together, sharing a common space. As a concept, social order can be interpreted as a social condition in which stability and consistency are maintained through a set of rules of conduct, often implicit, inducing people exercise self-control within life situations. It differs over time and place, and tends to be restored immediately when it is breached I looked at the main differences and similarities between the two theorists Michel Foucault and Erwing Goffman? If we now compare and contrast Goffman’s and Foucault’s explanations of how social order is made and remade. I looked at Goffman’s theory, he believes social order is produced through actions of individuals and their practises through living there lives.
The Case Study Approach Deciding to write a case study researcher should think about the method itself; along with how it can be used as a tool plus the reasons to use the case study approach. Does it convey truly what they are wanted to get across? Before they start working on a case study; have they thought of all the advantages and disadvantages to using this approach to getting a theory or information out to the world. Once they have reached this point then the researcher must decide how to collect the data/information in which they want to share with the real world. The Case Study Method and Tool Case studies are methods in which usually an individual is observed but sometimes can be a setting such as a school, business, or neighborhood.
Vushaj SOC 150-05 September 6, 2013 Writing assignment #1 Sociology is the study of society and social interaction. Sociology takes a broad approach at helping one understand how people interact in different societies. On the contrary, other social sciences look deeper into specific areas of society, rather than society as a whole. Classical sociologists Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, each contributed to the scientific study of sociology. Marx believed that societies grew and changed due to struggles of different social classes.
Giddens (2009 p.6) defined sociology as ‘‘the scientific study of human life, social groups, whole societies and the human world as such’’. He argued further about sociology by suggesting that, ‘‘it is a dazzling and compelling enterprise, as its subject matter is our own behaviour as social beings’’. Hence, it is opined that sociology is an academic tool that broadly looks at human organisms’ lives in order to explain why they act the way they do. Black (1979 p.18) defines common sense as ‘‘the style of discourse by which people understand reality in everyday life”. Sociology is in one way or another related to science and common sense but it is also in many ways distinct from the two.
Use of the Scientific Method in Sociology Sociologists are social scientists who observe the human society. As sociology is also the field of science, it needs to be studied with the application of scientific method. Scientific method is a systematic approach to researching questions and problems through objective and accurate observation, collection and analysis of data, direct experimentation, and replication of these procedures. The principles of the scientific method are mostly concerned with the way of conducting the observations. Sociologists who use scientific method should develop a hypothesis that is falsifiable and when observing the social phenomena they want to study, he or she should not put their personal beliefs in their observation.
Social facts, positivists argue, can be observed, measured, and quantified, (hence why positivism is also known as Quantitative) producing data/statistics which, when analysed can reveal correlations, patterns of behaviour, causes (cause and effect), and ultimately, laws of human behaviour. By creating data through research methods such as structured interviews, questionnaires, and social surveys using a deductive approach to the relationship between theory and results, the emphasis is placed on the testing of theories. They also believe that it is important to examine society as a whole, using a large scale (macro) methodology, and consider social facts (institutions, beliefs, norms &values of society) to have an external existence to a person, but having an influence on behaviour, and the way a person acts. Therefore, it could be said that human beings essentially are directed by social facts, by norms, values and beliefs, and are part of wider society. Durkheim’s study of suicide being an example of this, he gathered data on suicide (social fact) and members of different religious beliefs (set), by analysis of such data and found a link between Protestantism and a high rate of suicide.
How this will be accomplished will be by comparing and contrasting their assumptions. Then I will state my opinion on which of the two better fits my personal sociological views. Functionalism and the conflict theory are sociological perspectives that present different assertions of studying the society and how the resultant perspectives of the society are enhanced. The functionalist perspective perceives the society as a system and on a large scale. The functionalist perspective presents social moulding of an individual rather than use of force to the individual in order to carry out societal roles.
At the other end of the spectrum, Ground Theory is a systematic form of enquiry which generates social theory through the study of social systems present in human relations and although there are differences between the two, they both have much in common. In respect to the similarities that exist between the two, both theories adopt an interpretivivst approach, in which the researcher seeks to explore real life situations, which requires much more interaction between persons and this takes the form of interviews or observation etc. both theorist collect and analyses data from participants perspectives and try to ensure their findings are not influenced by preconceived ideas, to achieve they must involve participants in data analysis to increase trustworthiness of the findings. In brief, Grounded and Phenomenologists Theorist seeks to explore, individuals experience in the context of the world we live in. Phenomenologists emerged from Philosophy, primary influenced by E. Husseri and M. Heidegger, it aims to describe and explore experiences which can only be done by collecting data, from individuals who have lived through those experiences.
Social Influences on Behavior Social influences on behavior This paper will attempt to explore and explain basic concepts of human interactions regarding a perspective on psychology and examples given regarding how human behaviors change based on different social situations, including specific behaviors, environments in which the behaviors occurred, associated phenomenon associated with behaviors, and if the behavior exhibits any necessary therapeutic intervention. Social Influences on Behavior Social psychology and sociology are very similar and travel the same path. Conformity may make a new situation easier and combining the identity to a group is a social identity theory. An individual’s behavior often changes by changing the individual’s environment or group setting. Humans crave social interactions; to withhold social interaction is a squandered effort.
Studying Human Society: The Sociological Approach 1. Describe one similarity and two differences between structural and action theories. (187 Words) When comparing Structural theories, such as Marxism, Functionalism and Feminism(s), and Social Action theories such as Interactionist theory, we see there is a similarity in their foundation desire to understand and interpret the roles and behaviour of people in society. However, when considering contrasts within these theories we see marked differences; for example, structural theories are deterministic, believing people to be the products of the society they live in, their status the result of social prescriptivism. Whereas, action theorists expressly believe we have free-will and are capable of choosing our own path; that society should be and is defined by the opinions and actions of those individuals who form it.