European Transformation In Europe

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Past upheaval and disruption in social, political, and economic realms in Europe allowed for a new period of healing and transformation in Europe. In the time period ranging from 1500 to 1800, Europe underwent extreme social, political and economic transformation. The transformation is shown socially through urbanization, the Protestant Reformation, and the Age of Enlightenment, politically through the emergence of absolute and constitutional monarchies, as well as the European State System, and economically through capitalism and a new market based economy, as well as the new putting out system. From 1500 to 1800, Europe experienced both the emergence of absolute and constitutional monarchies/republics, as well as the European state system.…show more content…
The attack on the Roman Catholic Church practices in 1517 by Martin Luther (aided by the printing press) caused dissent to spread throughout Germany and Switzerland in the 1520s and 1530s. During this time, heavily urbanized Low Countries also became proponents of the Protestant Reformations. At this time, Germany and Switzerland had no central authority, so Protestantism was something the people could use for self control and governing. The Protestant Reformation would go on to cause serious religious conflicts in Europe during this time period. The trend of moving away from Aristotelian philosophy and church doctrine in favor of rational thought and scientific analysis is referred to as the Enlightenment. The center of this rationale was based in France, where Voltaire and deism became increasingly popular. From the Enlightenment came the assumption that the era would lead humanity to harmony and material wealth. The actual implication for the Enlightenment was a decline in authority of traditional organized religion. American food crops and the Columbian Exchange caused improved nutrition and decreasing morality. The population growth which resulted was met with urbanization. The social transformation of urbanization created a movement to cities, which resulted in a business boom, resulting in economic…show more content…
In this capitalistic society, the means of production were owned by individuals on a free market, with private initiative and no government control. This would enable individuals from the artisan and entrepreneurial class to obtain significant wealth. At this same time, banks and stock exchanges developed further, while joint stock companies found riches in their relationships with empire building and exploration. Medieval guilds were discarded in favor of the putting out system. The guilds could not keep up during this time, as prices could not be regulated due to supply and demand. In the putting out system however, supply and demand lowered prices on the free market, and thus was favored over guilds. In the putting out system, unfinished materials such as raw wool were moved into the countryside, and rural households would finish products. Entrepreneurs would then sell these finished products. One implication of the putting out system would be rural individuals being financially connected to urban cities, no matter the distance. This system shows an early effort to organize efficient industrial production; a precursor to the industrial

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