The Popes learned their lesson and realized that they needed to keep the King of Sicily and the Emperor separate so that Rome did not find itself surrounded by a common enemy. So they ended up offering Sicily to France but that backfired quickly when the Sicilians massacred the French who were living on the island. the massacre is referred to as the Sicilian Vespers and the whole situation was a total fiasco which led to more hits toward how people viewed the papal office. In 1292 another important event occurred. Pope Nicholas IV died and the church held a conclave to decide on the new pope.
Before John was King of England, for many years, the kings defended English territory within France by using English men and money. King John acted in this similar way but his military campaigns were unsuccessful. England and France were constantly at war. By 1204, he had lost his lands in northern France; this included his family’s ancestral land in Normandy and Anjou to Philip II. In order to continue battling France, the King forced from his barons greater taxes and additional military services, this angered the barons because he did not consult them before raising taxes; this was a violation of feudal law and custom.
King John and the barons were together in their interests for their kingdom. It wasn’t until the continued failures of King John that there interests started to change. The barons were fed up with the higher and higher taxes on their people. Their continued loss of their people in failed wars. Fed up by the series of failures of the king finally led to the baron’s revolt and put the king’s power in check.
The improvements that the French army had made during the reign of Charles V and thus, the subsequent similarities that had arisen between the two countries' armies, disappeared. Though the English were far outnumbered, they wrought a startling defeat over the French. Their defeat caused Charles VI to sign the Treaty of Troyes with the English in 1420. It ensured that upon his death, the rule of France would be handed over to Henry V. The treaty was complicated, however, when both Charles VI and Henry V died two years later. The kingship of both countries was given to Henry V's infant son.
At this time Henry was experiencing mental fluctuations, his wife Margaret of Anjou was influencing his decisions and the division within the nobility all contributed to the instability of England economically, socially and politically. In my opinion, the main factors for England’s fragmentation were Henry’s poor leadership and Margaret of Anjou’s control of Parliament in 1459. Before the first Battle of St Albans, Richard’s only ambitions were to be loyal to Henry and to be heir to his throne. All was running smoothly for him as he had defeated the royal troops in the beginning of the first Battle of St Albans and by the end of 1455, he had resumed his role as protector in Henry’s time of insanity. However, this only lasted for 3 months and changed when Henry’s son Edward IV was born, resulting in Richard not being able to claim the title of heir.
The Independents had a strong following in the parliamentary army and had the support of Oliver Cromwell. Afraid of their power, Presbyterian members of the House of Commons tried to disband the army. The soldiers were furious, especially as Parliament made no effort to pay them the wages that were due to them. Oliver and the army decided to take action.
Both sides were seizing the estates of their enemies to finance the war effort, creating even more political chaos. The King gained several victories, which all the more inclined him not to negotiate or compromise with the rebels. Having said this, the parliament had their own internal divisions which had a direct effect on that of a settlement. The division of parliament into Presbyterians and Independents made it much more difficult to reach a settlement after 1646. Parliament couldn’t agree on anything such as taxes.
Telling them that whatever they do in the name of the holy land and church will be overlooked by God. This sent the crusaders to a new level of warfare as children were killed, women were raped, and land was set on fire. Although Feudalism led to some type of order and civility, it was all controlled by the Pope and the Church. As Papal power increased, Pope Gregory IV led Western Europe into the 4th Crusade during the High Middle Ages (c.1000-1300). The aftermath of the crusade left Islam and Catholic at a peaceful treaty and trade began.
The French drove the English from their country in 1453. Results of the War The Hundred Years’ War changed the governments of both England and France. In England, Parliament’s power grew because the king needed Parliament’s approval to raise money to pay for the costly war. As Parliament gained more influence, the king lost power. In France, on the other hand, the king’s power grew.
This just shows the intensity of the Palace of Versailles because it was so elegant while being so incredibly large. Louis was not smart on making the decisions to create war or build the Palace of Versailles. In all, King Louis XIV made an impact on France by taking away rights from the French, keeping all the power for him, and killing the economy. Louis’ impact was indeed a bad impact that made France want to rid of him for the seventy-three years he served