European Imperialism in Africa

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The "Scramble for Africa" is the popular name for the invasion, occupation, and, colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of Africa and the Conquest of Africa. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under European control; by 1914 it was 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia and Liberia still being independent. The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the Conquest of Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism", by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of a people, which brought about colonial imperialism. The social and economic effects of European Imperialism in Africa are, economy, military, and social class. Africa was a new market for manufactured goods that could be sold for high prices, and was also a source of raw materials that could be manufactured. Although, in the grand scheme of the African economy, it grew to a more global position, the social or individual part, suffered greatly. Africa also drew large numbers of European migrants who mostly became free cultivators or herders but sometimes found employment as skilled laborers in mines or fledging industries. Most of these migrants were peasants, and criminals who wanted to make money quickly because they couldn’t in Europe, with their social
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