Ethnicity Questions Essay

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Chapter 10 Questions about National , Subnational and Ethnic Identity Suggested by Jaak Billiet K.U. Leuven Contents 10.1. (Sub)-national and ethnic identity by Jaak Billiet 386 10.1.1 Problems in the measurement of ethnic identity 388 10.1.2 Proposal for the ESS-core questions on ethnic identity 396 10.1.3 Problems in the measurement of citizenship and (sub)-national identity 399 10.1.4 Proposal for (sub)-national identity questions in ESS core 409 10.2 Comments of the CCT 413 10.1. (Sub)-national and ethnic identity by Jaak Billiet Introduction As was the case for religious identification in previous session, (sub)-national and ethnic identities are in the core of social identifications (Erikson & Johnsson, 1999). A ‘social identity’ is “the individual’s knowledge that he belongs to certain groups. These identities result social groups together with some emotional and value significance to hem of the group membership” (Tajfel, 1978: 63). These identities therefore result from inter-group relations as do cognitive and affective representations of its dimensional constituents. More specifically, social identity theory (SIT) proposes that individuals seek a positive social identity, a positive self-concept based on their membership through social comparisons between their own and other groups. They try to achieve ‘positive distinctiveness for their own group in order to protect and maintain their self-esteem as group member (Tajfel & Turner, 1979; Turner & Giles, 1981). Individuals self-conceptions of who they are, and how they relate to others, is greatly influenced by the interpersonal and intergroup context in which they evolve and in which social comparisons are made (Kessler, et al., 2000: 96-97). (Sub)-national and ethnic identities are therefore the

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