Perhaps more so than Emotivists, Prescriptivists see ethical language as fairly meaningful. They believe that the terms used are able to create absolute rules that everyone ought to follow. It would seem that ethical language is seen by many as very meaningful, although for varying reasons. However agent centred theories such as Virtue Ethics would argue that our main focus of morality should be on becoming as virtuous as possible, rather than deciding what is meant by ethical language. Therefore it would seem that perhaps morality should be more focussed on individuals’ actions rather then defining what is meant by ‘good’ and
This is a legal but unethical issue. From this we can conclude that compliance ethics expects only the bare minimum, and to be a more ethical organisation, value ethics should be emphasized. Weaver and Trevino (1999) also believe that value ethics would have more of an impact and last longer in the organisation. Next is how formal culture systems promote ethics. Formal ethical systems consist of factors such as leadership, code of ethics, reward systems, orientation, and training programs.
Meta ethics tries to make sense of the terms and concepts used in ethical theories. Some people believe that ethical language is extremely meaningful as they argue it is essential to be able to define terms such as “good” and “bad” before we can even begin to discuss ethical theories. However others disagree with this and argue that moral statements are subjective so cannot be meaningful as they cannot be described as either true or false. Those who hold cognitive theories about ethical language would argue that ethical statements are meaningful as they are about facts and can therefore be proved true or false. Ethical Naturalism is a cognitive theory of Meta ethics which holds the belief that ethical statements are the same as non ethical ones, so can be verified or falsified in the same way.
In professional community, integrity enhances personal commitments to the code of ethics set forward by the professional organization. It involves decision making in the frame of mind as to what is right, instead of what will make me look better than others. It will help people act in a fair and a responsible manner. In personal settings, integrity leads
Cognitivism is the view that we can have moral knowledge. People who hold cognitive theories about ethical language believe that ethical statements are about facts and can be proved true or false. Non-cognitivists make the distinction between facts and values. Therefore those that have cognitive theories of ethics will say that ethical language is not meaningless and there is something to learn from it, whereas those that follow non-cognitive theories will agree with the essay question saying that it cannot be verified. A.J.
• Beneficence refers to the ethical obligation to maximize benefits and to minimize harms and wrongs. • Justice refers to the ethical obligation to treat each person in accordance with what is morally right and proper, to give each person what is due to him or her. II.) The circumstances that deceit is allowable and the criteria that must be met: • The participant is honestly and fully informed about the requirements of their participation before they participate in
Consequentialism, Deontology and Virtue Ethics are the three most popular ethical theories in modern society. However, the question of which ethical theory is most convincing arises a huge topic for debate and the answer depends on individuals’ thoughts and opinions on the issue. Basically, Consequentialism states that an action is right hf it promotes the best consequences, Deontology states that an action is right if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle, and Virtue Ethics states that an action is right if it is what a virtuous person would do in the circumstances. Based on these definitions of these theories, I find Virtue Ethics to be the most convincing. Virtue ethics emphasizes the role of one's character and the virtues that one's character embodies for determining or evaluating ethical behavior.
One major strength of virtue ethics is that it allows the moral agent to make ethical decisions based on his or her moral well-being, not just based on what is legally right. Therefore this ethical system can be seen to have a greater weight over others as someone who follows it are doing so because they believe it’s right rather than following rules. This then also acknowledges that morality is complex and so rejects simplistic maxims as a basis for moral truths. However, this can also be seen to be one of the weaknesses of virtue ethics. Robert Louden stated that as virtue ethics is focused on the individual, it neither resolves nor attempts to resolve big moral dilemmas.
This just means that the act is correct as long as it brings happiness to the greatest amount of people. Sidgwick and Bentham believed in similar views and are seen as act utilitarians. Act utilitarianism is when you have to decide what action would bring about the greatest good so it depends on the consequences of the action so the rightness or wrongness of something can be changed. Rule utilitarianism believes that rules should be created by using utilitarian principles
For utilitarian school of thought, an individual strives to do the most good, even at the expense of the minority. Utilitarianism and Kantianism find the basis of their differences in the idea that the ends justify the means. Utilitarian beliefs support this idea while Kantian philosophy rejects this. Modern ethics were devised from these two basic ethical beliefs in an attempt to combine the best aspects. Generally, the morally “right” action benefits the majority while affecting the fewest amount in a negative way.