ENGL102 Cover Letter I chose to critically evaluate the Fulbright article because of the relevancy of his argument to current policies on America’s involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. As in the Vietnam War, American lives have been lost in a War on Terror that has become a humanitarian mission to instill peace and a system of government in a nation not our own. I wanted to explore Fulbright’s argument in order to develop historical insight and to better understand America’s willingness to enter conflict in another nation. Fulbright’s argument presented an alternative to conflict, and the loss of American lives. On that alone I was willing to support his perspective, but needed to critically evaluate it as a credible argument.
My partner and I disagree with the resolved: Unilateral military force by the United States is justified to prevent nuclear proliferation A few definitions to set the stage for the debate: Unilateral- a unilateral action or decision is done by only one of the groups involved in a situation. <http://www.ldoceonline.com/Government-topic/unilateral> Justified- Demonstrated or proven to be just, right, or valid. <http://www.answers.com/topic/justify> Prevent- to stop something from happening or someone from doing something. <http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/prevent> Nuclear proliferation- a term used to describe the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information, to nations which are not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT. < http://definitions.uslegal.com/n/nuclear-proliferation%20/> In order for the Pro to win this debate, unilateral military force by the United States must not only be proven to effectively prevent nuclear proliferation, but also be justified.
The Just War Theory The analysis of war from justice or injustice has been one of the most outstanding in the history of “moral reality” of war. The just war theory is part of a tendency that attempts to justify war. This tendency is the relative warmongering theory. According to this theory the reasons that may lead a state to declare war are self-defense issues, redress a tort, claim a natural or positive right or prevent an attack. At first glance it seems unreasonable to distinguish between just and unjust wars because we may think that all war is unjust in itself.
The most recent attempt took place in August 1990. On August 2, 1990 Iraq invaded the neighbouring state of Kuwait. The motivation for this invasion has been argued by various scholars and theorists to be the deterioration of the Iraqi economy and the debts created by the Iraq-Iran war. The president of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, wanted
Amongst other existing definitions of war, he prefers Hedley Bull’s (1977) definition: “War is organized violence carried on by political unit against each other.” Although he has made it clear that even working and operational definitions make theoretical assumptions that may distort the world, he has avoided beginning this inquiry with an explicit theoretical definition. However, he believes that a review of theoretical definitions provides understanding of the various concepts of war that have existed and some insight s about what may be the most useful theoretical assumptions to make in trying to explain war. To sum up all the conceptions he had presented in his essay, he make six theoretical assumptions: (1) war is learned; (2) war comes out of a long-term process; (3) war is a product of interaction and not simply systemic conditions; (4) war is a way of making decisions; (5) war is multi-causal; and (6) there are
However they needed to fight and therefore they decided to create rules in order to have a fair war which they were able to fight in such as having a legitimate authority to authorise the war and a justified cause which initiates the war. This progressed to Aquinas developing the Just War theory. The rules of the just war were defined as “Ad Bellum” which are; a just cause, to save life or protect human rights and justice. An example of an unjust cause would be in 1941 when Japan attacked the USA with no provocation or declaration. Competent authority, for example when the United Nations declared the first gulf war.
Unilaterally intervening into other countries has caused more harm than good for the U.S. Unilateral force causes harm to the United States because it violates international law. The fundamental rule of contemporary international law is that states cannot attack other states. The U.N. Charter embodies this rule and makes only two exceptions to it: a state can attack another state if it is authorized to do so by a Security Council resolution, or if the attacking state is acting in genuine self-defense. It would also violate the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Why Did the U.S Go to War with Iraq in 2003? Iraq war is one of the most debatable U.S military conflicts of the past decades. Different opinions exist about the propriety of this war. Nevertheless, it is likely that that the U.S intervention into Iraq was a justified measure, as it helped to prevent more serious and dangerous conflicts on the Middle East. The official reasons to enter the Iraq conflict were freeing Iraq people, planting democracy, and destroying the Iraq nuclear potential.
Cornell Glass WH 1-12 The Invasion of Iraq and the Crusades Essay Introduction There have been a lot of wars but it seems like Iraq and Afghanistan have been fighting other countries for a really long time, just so they could protect their land from invaders. In my paper I will be talking about the similarities and differences between the early crusades and the wars today between America, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Factors for the Early Crusades The Muslims from Turks invaded the Byzantine lands and this provoked the Byzantine emperor Alexius I. The emperor of Byzantine asked for help from pope Urban II, Pope Urban the II put aside his differences with Byzantine emperor and decided to help Alexius I go to war against the Muslims. Pope Urban II lied and said that Christ demands that the Holy Land be freed from the Muslims to gain support from others, and Pope Urban II also lied when he said that the sins f those who went to fight would be washed away.
CAN A EVER BE JUST? Many argue whether a war could be justified or not. In my essay I will be discussing whether it's justifiable or not. A just war is war waged according to moral rules defined by St Augustine and St Thomas Aquinas.The conditions for a just war are 1. the war must only be started and controlled by the authority of the state or the ruler, 2. there must be a just- cause;those attacked are attacked because they deserve it, 3. the war must be fought to promote good or avoid evil. Peace and justice must be restored afterwards.