Essay On Innate Immunity

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Immunology Immunology deals with the study of immunity and immune systems of vertebrates. Immunity means exempt or free from burden broadly involves the resistance shown and protection offered by the host organism against the infection diseases. Immunity is broadly divided into two types:- • Innate (non-specific) Immunity • Adaptive or Acquired (specific) Immunity Innate Immunity Innate immunity is non-specific and represents the inherent capability of the organism to offer resistance against diseases. It consists of defensive barriers. First line of defense The skin is the largest organ in the human body, constituting about 15% of the adult weight. The skin provides mechanical barrier to prevent the entry of microorganism and viruses.…show more content…
In contrast to innate immunity the acquired immunity displays four distinct characteristics. 1. Antigen specificity 2. Recognition diversity 3. Immunological memory 4. Discrimination between self and non-self Organization of Immune system The immune system consists of several organ distributed throughout the body. These lymphoid organs are characterized as primary and secondary. Primary lymphoid organs The thymus and bone marrow are the central or primary lymphoid organs. T-lymphocytes maturation occurs in the thymus, β-lymphocytes maturation takes place in the bone marrow. Secondary lymphoid organs These are the sites for initiation of immune response, e.g. spleen, tonsils, lymph nodes, appendix, peyers patches in the gut. Secondary lymphoid organs provide the microenvironment for interaction between antigens and mature lymphocytes. Cells of the immune system Two types of lymphocytes namely β-cells and T-cells are critical for the immune system. β-lymphocytes The site of development and maturation of β-cells occurs in bone marrow in mammals .β-cells mature into plasma cell and secrete antibodies. The β-cells posses the capability to specifically recognize each antigen and produce antibodies. β-lymphocytes are intimately associated with humoral

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