Environmental Protection Agency estimated that 70 to 140 billion gallons of water are used to fracture 35,000 wells in the United States each year. This is approximately the annual water consumption of 40 to 80 cities each with a population of 50,000. Fracture treatments incoalbed methane wells use from 50,000 to 350,000 gallons of water per well, while deeper horizontal shale wells can use anywhere from 2 to 10 million gallons of water to fracture a single well. The extraction of so much water for fracking has raised concerns about the ecological impacts to aquatic resources, as well asdewatering of drinking water aquifers. It has been estimated that the transportation of a million gallons of water (fresh or waste water) requires 200 truck trips.
The hydrosphere comprises all water on earth, in all its forms and locations. Water covers 80% of our planet, and of it, fresh water accounts for just 2.5%. Furthermore, only about one percent is available for people to use. The majority, 97%, is salt water in the oceans; the rest is locked in the ice caps or groundwater distributed all over the world. The earth has had the same amount of water for millions of years.
The water supplied is untreated and raw surface water. The centers have been placed all around North Texas in eight different counties. The four primary customers of the TRWD are Arlington, Fort Worth, Mansfield, and Trinity River Authority. TRWD services more than seventy cities in eleven counties. In 2011, the number of people served was 1.8 million.
If you check back in a thousand or million years, no doubt these numbers will be different! Notice how of the world's total water supply of about 332.5 million cubic miles of water, over 96 percent is saline. And, of the total freshwater, over 68 percent is locked up in ice and glaciers. Another 30 percent of freshwater is in the ground. Fresh surface-water sources, such as rivers and lakes, only constitute about 22,300 cubic miles (93,100 cubic kilometers), which is about 1/150th of one percent of total water.
It produces 1/3 of the earth’s oxygen and 1/5 of the earth’s fresh water supply by its water cycling. The Amazon absorbs carbon dioxide and cleanses the atmosphere, and therefore prevents global warming. It also has thousands of different endangered species that are threatened to extinction by deforestation. According to World Wild Life more than 350 indigenous ethnic groups are living in the Amazon, some for as long as thousands of years. Today, more than 30 million people live in the region and are dependent on the Amazon’s ecosystem for food and shelter.
It’s worth 80 Billion Dollars, and provides energy for millions of people. The length of the river is 4373 km if you count the Chambeshi. And without the Chambeshi the river is 2900 km. The height of the junction of Lualaba and luvua rivers are 931 meters. The flow rate of the Congo river is very regularly and represents 40,000 cubic metres per second.
The Three Gorges Dam INTRODUCTION The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest hydropower project and most notorious dam. The massive project sets records for number of people displaced (more than 1.2 million), number of cities and towns flooded (13 cities, 140 towns, 1,350 villages), and length of reservoir (more than 600 kilometres). The project has been plagued by corruption, spiralling costs, environmental impacts, human rights violations and resettlement difficulties. Flood Control: Since the beginning of the Han Dynasty 2,300 years ago, there have been 214 major floods recorded, averaging 1 flood every ten years. Within this past century, there have been five major floods that were recorded to have claimed hundreds of millions of lives, millions of acres of farmland, destroyed thousands of homes, and billions of dollars of damage.
Water is linked to the right to life, and other human rights such as the right to health and the right to food. In many societies, traditional water practices need to be understood and respected. What do the rights to water and sanitation mean for business? Access to clean and safe drinking water and to adequate sanitation are now internationally recognised human rights, which businesses must respect regardless of their size, sector or geographic location. Most businesses understand that they have a responsibility to ensure that their activities and impacts do not infringe rights.
Powerful neighbors include Yoruba, Nupe, Benin, and Jukun. 1.6 Ecology (natural environment): The region contains vegetation between the southern forests and the northern dry Savannah. The rivers Okura, Ofu, Anambra, Onukpo and Amara Rivers provide great fertilization to the land giving it a swamp like tenure. This region experiences on average of 50 inches of rainfall annually. 1.7 Population size, mean village size, home range size, density: Igala country covers about 12,740 square kilometers and averages a density of about 4 persons per kilometer.