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David Cutler 635-645 The Niagara Movement and the NAACP- Progressive reforms seemed barely to touch the lives of African Americans. Most continued to live in rural areas, many in the Jim Crow South, laboring in the cotton fields or in unskilled jobs. Few belonged to unions, obtained adequate education, or earned pay equal to that of White workers in the same jobs. African-American leader W. E. B. Du Bois rejected the gradualist approach urged by Booker T. Washington and began the Niagara Movement for racial justice and equality, resulting in the creation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910. Despite limited gains, African Americans continued to experience violence, segregation, and discrimination. “I Hear the Whistle”: Immigrants in the Labor Force- The “new” immigration of southern and eastern Europeans continued in the early twentieth century. Not all immigrants were permanent. Among some groups, up to fifty percent returned to their homelands. For those who stayed, employers used “Americanization” programs to fashion dutiful habits among foreign workers. Such programs were often resisted by labor unions. After 1910, large numbers of Mexicans fled to the United States, transforming society in the Southwest. Though fewer Chinese immigrants arrived, many Japanese came settling along the Pacific Coast. The increasing numbers of immigrants intensified nativist sentiments. Conflict in the Workplace- Long hours, low pay, and the impersonal and unsafe conditions of factory jobs led to an increase of worker strikes, absenteeism, and union membership. Mindful of workers’ problems and fearful of potential violence, progressives urged labor reforms. Organizing Labor- The most successful union, the American Federation of Labor (AFL), restricted membership to skilled male workers and limited its agenda to issues of wages

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