Erik Erikson was a 20th century developmental psychologist. The fifth stage of his psychological development is Identity versus Confusion. Identity versus Confusion occurs during the adolescence stage which is the age period between 12 and 18. This stage occurs during adolescence because it’s the time of a child or teenager’s life when they are exploring their independence and trying to develop themselves. A child is the most vulnerable during the adolescence stage because they are continually searching for the acceptance of others, they are very easily influenced by others and the environment they are living in.
Achievement of this results in an emotion of autonomy; and a failure results in the feeling of shame and doubt. | Preschool|3 to 5 years| Imitative vs. Guilt|It is essential that children begin declaring control and power over the setting. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to use too much power experience disapproval, causing a sense of guilt.| School Age|6 to 11 years|Industry vs. Inferiority|Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of capability, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.| Adolescence|12 to 18 years|Identity vs. Role Confusion |Teenagers need to progress a sense of self and personal individuality.
Emotional trauma at a time when the brain isn't fully developed may cause changes to the brain and decrease a person's ability to deal with stressful situations later in their life. The hope is that this paper will enlighten the reader in regard to how negative events in the early stages of development can severely affect the person in maturity. CHILD ABUSE AND ITS EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT 3 Child Abuse and its Effects on Development Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best theories of personality in psychology. Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experience across one's life span.
Often, we hear people say things like, “middle children are attention-seekers” or “last born children are always stubborn and spoiled”. These statements are often stereotypes and may even be insulting, but we cannot deny that they hold some truth. Birth order theory suggests that birth order can affect the developing personality of a child. Eldest children, youngest children, the middle child and only children fall into statistical groups with similar personality traits. Some experts believe that birth order is an important tool in shaping how you turn out as an adult.
For example becoming independent from parents, education, finding employment and developing personal relationships. For Erikson, successful transition through the adolescent stage resulted in ego identity, a feeling of security of what and who the individual is. Erikson’s theory suggests that for different individuals, in differing psychological and social circumstances, the achievement of identity is not always a smooth process. He defined further stages of the process identity achievement including psychosocial moratorium which refers to a period where young people can try out different roles before adopting a
For Erikson, identity development of the individual depends on society; personality grows under the influence of parental and social attitudes – affected by the historical period. Identity means to feel belonging to group ideals. An over identification with groups can lead to the defence against identity loss can produce clannishness and intolerance. Erikson used clinical and naturalistic observations, analyses of biographies for research and own experience and developed an eight stages theory. Influenced by Freud, he suggested that people run through the different stages on their way to their own identity; beginning at birth and ending in the late adulthood.
Psychodynamic theories are a mixture of inborn traits and the environment in which they live. Early experiences play a critical part in the future of children. Sigmund Freud believed that children are always at war with their inner being do to sexual and aggressive impulses. Theorists also believe that when children grow when they are able to resolve the inner conflicts. This makes them more self aware of who they really are.
Erik Erikson’s theory on the psychological development of children consists of eight stages. In each stage Erikson states that the child faces a developmental crisis, in which the choice the individual makes prepares them for the next stage. Erikson identifies the first developmental crisis as trust versus mistrust. According to Erikson’s theory, the child will develop a sense of trust with its parent if it is provided with its basic needs, but mistrust if they are not fulfilled (Child Development). This clearly shows the affect the child’s parent and the way the child is raised, directly contributes to the individual’s personality.
Transitions and Challenges in Adulthood One's physical, cognitive and social-emotional development must be examined regards to early and middle childhood modification. The three stages of child development focus on early childhood, middle childhood, and adolescence regards to transition and developmental processes. In addition, major challenges, including health and fitness, and expertise and creativity must continue to be analyzed through clinical practice and further research (Berk, 2010). Developmental processes One's first year of life is extremely critical for healthy advancement, including his physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development (Berk, 2010). The fact is when a child begins to develop; the influences around him will determine his readiness and later his success or failure in his lifespan.
During this stage children reach a milestone whereby they have control of their body and this in turn produces feelings of accomplishment and capabilities. Phallic stage (3 to 6 years). During this stage children gain specific emotions of jealousy and feelings of difference. Latent stage (6 years to puberty). During this time children tend to develop interests in hobbies and building relationships.