Christianity played a key role in shaping the type of people the Robin Johns came to be. Before the Robin Johns were kidnapped they would have followed the traditional religious principles, which the Efik people followed. They also participated in a secret society reffered to as Ekpe, meaning leppoard to the Efik people and Egbo to the Europeans. The Efiks religious outline was, somewhat similar to that of Christianity. Sparks says “The Efik worshiped one god, Abasi the creator of all things, often referred to as Etenyin Abasi, our father who lived in the sky(pg.62)”.
William Apess William Apess was an advocate for the rights of his Native American people. According to the Norton Anthology he was the first Native American to write and publish an autobiography( 1051). Apess was born into an ancestry that struggled with their freedom and equality, however Apess became one of several Native Americans who is remembered for his literary talents and skill(Brown). Although there is some controversy about the whereabouts of Apess birth, most critics believe that Apess was born on January 31, 1798 in Colrain Massachusetts. He was born to his father William, a descendent of King Phillip, and a shoemaker and his mother Candace, who was a Pequot and it is said that she may have been part African American (Brown).
Additionally, the verdict had many political and social implications, provoked angry resentment in the North and led the country a step closer to civil war. After the Civil War and the introduction and passage of the U.S. Constitution’s 14th Amendment finally brought about the overturning of the decision. Adopted in 1868, this amendment granted citizenship to former slaves and their descendants and gave them the benefit and protection of their civil liberties. Dred Scott was an illiterate slave born in 1799. He was born as the property of the Peter Blow family since his parents were both slaves.
Apess was then sent to preach to the Pequots, an American Indian tribe who originated from southern New England, in 1831 by the New York Annual Conference of Protestant Methodists. Not much is known about Apess from 1831-1833. However, during this time he wrote a sermon entitled, “An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White Man,” which addressed the Euro-Americans’ ignorance and judgement of the Native Americans of New England. Although leaders of both the church and state rejected the thought of an Indian preaching Christianity, Apess believed that “Christ died for all mankind.” He was aware that Native Americans and African Americans were experiencing discrimination through racism. Through his writing, “An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White Man,” William Apess is able to argue against inequality by using his knowledge and practice of Christianity.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was born Michael King Jr. and later changed his name when he got older. To compare, Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little and later changed his name based on his beliefs of religion and what his name symbolized. To sum up, MLK and Malcolm X both gave not just African Americans pride, but
“These are where my people lived before you whites first came.” Also, Charles Eastman was a young Dartmouth educated Sioux doctor, helped out as living proof of the alleged success or assimilation. Charles had two different symbols through his life in his faith. He had a feather that he used to wear which symbolized the Indians belief and the cross he had been wearing when he grew up represented the American belief. This story was all about fear because the Indians were scared of the whites taking their land away from them. Sitting bull was the one that made the changes.
Christina De Graff Due: 10-11-12 Freedom Essay Period 2 Freedom has been limited for many different reasons throughout history. Arthur Miler wrote The Crucible to express his feelings on how freedom was being limited during the Red Scare. The Red scare wasn’t the first period where freedom started to be limited, but it was also not the last. The freedom of people is still limited today and will be limited in the future. Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible not only as a book to read for entertainment, but also an informational read on the Red Scare and McCarthyism.
Although the Indian removal is generally associated with the 1830 act of congress, the process was already being put in effect as early as the 1700s. There was pressure of the whites settlers that led to a small party of Choctaws, Chickasaws and Cherokees to move west of the Mississippi by 1807. Jefferson led the native people to believe that if they were to stay on the land they should adapt to the whites beliefs and religious mindset. The Natives where desperate and in an effort to keep their land they were willing to try anything, so they learned the English language started dressing like them and started to get educated. Assimilation was never the plan though Jefferson ultimately wanted the move the natives off their land and continue the expansion.
Even though they were simply accused of having left wing views, but it could not be proven. Others tried to use the amendment to avoid being held in contempt of congress, they were black listed. Many of them were unable to return to their what would have been successful careers. People were jailed, blacklisted; thus suffered financial issues due to loss of employment and even had their passports revoked based on accusations that couldn’t be prove nor for fear they would try to over throw the government just because they had a different political view. Many of these people were innocent of even opposing the government or acting on their views if they did oppose.
Dylan was a leader and an idol of many people. He influenced people to reform their thinking about racism. Dylan showed right in the society by his songs. “Dylan was an early critic of the Vietnam War, and used his music to voice his opinion.”(Carlin) Bob Dylan was part of the duets of the song “we are the world” there quote was (“we are the world, we are the children/ we are the ones who make a brighter day/ So lets start giving. )” (Wooderg) Dylan also was most notable among the young generation of folk singers who came into prominence in the early 1960’s was Dylan.