Equivalence Essay

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Lecture 2. TRANSLATION EQUIVALENCE AND EQUIVALENTS This Lecture: The notion of equivalence and translation units; shows: • the notion of equivalence at syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels; • the optimal length of text for translation; • the importance of semantic and pragmatic similarity. Translation equivalence is the key idea of translation. According to A.S. Hornby21 equivalent means equal in value, amount, volume, etc. The principle of equivalence is based on the mathematical law of transitivity that reads: if A is equal to С and В is equal to C, then В equals A. As applied to translation, equivalence means that if a word or word combination of one language (A) corresponds to certain concept (C) and a word or word combination of another language (B) corresponds to the same concept (C) these words or word combinations are considered equivalent (connected by the equivalence relation). For example, words table and стол are equivalent through the similarity of the meanings of the Ukrainian word стол and one! of the meanings of the English word table. In general sense and in general case words table and стол are not equal or equivalent - they are equivalent only under specific translation conditions. So, the words that you find in a dictionary as translations of the given foreign language word are not the universal substitutes of this word in your language. These translations (equivalents) are worth for specific cases which are yet to be determined by the translator. Let us recall now the relationship between signs of the language, mental concepts and denotata (see Lecture 1). As you might remember the relation between a language sign (word or word combination) and the fragment of the real world it denotes is indirect and intermediated by the mental concept. You might also recall that the mental concept of a given language sign is usually rather broad and
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