(Unknown, 1995-1999) When it comes to hiring, firing or promotions, a woman may have experience and excellent qualifications, but she is not hired because the man that is doing the hiring feels more comfortable dealing with another men. It could also be, for instance, a woman is told that she is being laid off due to company needing to cutback and do some reorganization, while the men in the same job and with less seniority gets to keep their jobs. These examples are very illegal and can be dealt with though the proper channels of the law. (Tobias, 2006) Gender Discrimination affects employees because it degrades an employees work performance. If someone is discriminated against and they know that they can’t say anything because they really need that job, than they just take all they their employer has to give.
There are many reasons women tend to be poorer than men: Lower wages, failed social safety nets, fewer educational opportunities, substandard health care, and a lack of employee protections and benefits such as paid maternity leave and child care all contribute to the problem. In addition, women typically are the primary caretakers of children and elders, which also makes them more vulnerable to impoverishment as they have less time to earn money outside the home. Female workers are at a higher risk of poverty not only because average wages are lower for women than for men but also because women tend to work fewer hours due to their unpaid responsibilities in the home and community -which include the care of children, elderly, and sick family members; domestic work such as cooking, cleaning, and other household chores; and volunteer work in the community. The value placed on work that is seen as traditionally female is related to employment segmentation. "Woman’s work," the kind of work that women typically
The companies stuck to their claims that both genders were being assessed an paid using the same commission based system, and that the women were usually being paid less than the average male broker because of their “underperformance”. Madden’s investigation actually found that the women employed at these brokerage firms were assigned (by the most upper staff who were largely male) to inferior and less lucrative accounts, which resulted in smaller returned earnings and commission. Brokers who have smaller returns are not offered the various amenities, such as bigger offices or a support staff, that could be necessary to attract the biggest accounts and grow within the company. Thus, this created a cycle in which female brokers were rarely given an opportunity to work with the biggest accounts that would earn them larger returns for their companies. In regards to the gender pay gap in which women’s earning are typically much less than the earnings of their male counterparts, the two social theories that are best linked to the issue are functionalism and the feminist theory.
Conversely the behaviours and attitudes of women are seen as inappropriate to men. Lemons and Parzinger (p.92) suggest traditional gender roles create bias in favour of men. For instance, women place a greater emphasis on family than on their own rights, while men typically assume leadership roles. This creates an information processing bias and results in “undesirable work place
Differences in cognition between men and women are highly influenced by their roles in the society and culture they belong to. For example, in a society where women are defined by their male partner and depend on him economically, it is likely that they will depend on them mentally as well and will be more prone to develop depression when losing them than the other way around. Although there are biological explanations to the reason why females tend to be more prone to depression (hormonal changes in puberty, menopause or the premenstrual period, for example), I do not believe depression could be evoked solely by hormonal changes (because otherwise depression would be even more common among females) without the participation of environmental factors in addition. Another reason why I believe socio- cultural explanations are more relevant when explaining gender differences in prevalence of depression is because these
They therefore remain with their skills which may not be applicable in other industries. Innovation and development of new technologies renders some skills obsolete. Structural unemployment is thus caused by technical changes in the production process as well as changes in the types of products that people demand. Frictional Unemployment This is usually short term in nature and arises when people are changing jobs or because of lack of knowledge about job opportunities. It takes time for prospective employees to match with the employers thus resulting in unemployment during the period of job searching.
Salary matters more to some individuals than others. Those who are most concerned about it are men, younger workers, and those at lower levels in organizations, that is those who are paid less. People are more satisfied if they are getting paid more than their expectations but that usually doesn’t happen very often. And if the salary remains constant for a certain period of time then a person is less satisfied with their job and thus causes unhappiness in
It is harder for homosexuals to find and keep positions, and employers often treat them differently. In regards to income, a startling gender disparity exists between homosexual males and females. Males are found to be more likely than females to experience a negative discrimination in which they receive smaller wages than heterosexual males and make overall less income. Females on the other hand, actually have a positive discrimination in which they receive higher incomes than heterosexual females, although this may be explained in part by the fact that they are less likely to have labor force participation interrupted by bearing children. The results, however, are largely inconclusive as many other causes that are not easily isolated, such as ethnicity and health, are involved when comparing homosexuals with heterosexuals and determining economic discrimination.
Sex Role spill over theory and contact theory shows females in men traditional jobs have a big chance of getting harassed if there are more men then women their contact will probably end up in some kind of sexual harassment and because of this more women witness their co-workers making reports of harassment. The second hypothesis states that women in male traditional jobs that witness harassment become tough and will not show sympathy for women co-workers who report that they are being harassed sexually. Female in men traditional workplaces will most likely not support co-worker complaints of harassment. Women in their own traditional jobs do not have much experience with harassment complaints and would most likely make more judgments of witnessed