Effect of Enzyme Activity on Temperature Aim: The aim of this experiment is to investigate how effectively the enzyme amylase breaks down starch at different temperatures Research Question: How does the increase in temperature affect the time taken for amylase to breakdown 2ml of starch? Purpose: Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that comprise the largest and most highly specialized class of protein molecules. Enzymes act as catalysts to increase the rates of chemical reactions. A fundamental property of enzymes is their specificity. Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
THE EFFECTS OF SALINITY CONCENTRATION ON AN ENZYME – CATALYZED REACTION HELEN PROFESSOR BUELL BIO 101L-03 11/22/11 The effects of salinity concentration on an enzyme – catalyzed reaction INTRODUCTION This experiment was performed to investigate how the physical factors of salinity will affect the rate of an enzyme – catalyzed reaction. (How fast an enzyme will turn over a substrate, based on energy of activation.) We tested on various levels of salt concentration, and used catechol to represent substrate, and potato extract to represent enzyme. We kept the levels of the “substrate” and “enzyme” at a constant, in an effort to only test on the salinity concentration. If our hypothesis is supported, our results will show that the higher concentration of salt, the faster the enzyme will denature.
DNA Extraction Aim: To extract DNA from a carrot using house hold products. Method: * Step 1 – Pour 60 ml (¼ cup) of clear alcohol into a glass. Place the glass into the bowl of iced water to chill, then set aside. * Step 2 – Pour 120 ml (½ cup) of tap/distilled water into the measuring cup with the salt. Add 30 ml (2 tablespoons) of clear detergent and mix carefully until the salt is dissolved.
After the effervescence, (15mL) of concentrated HCl was added drop wise to the solution. The mixture was then heated for 15 minutes in a boiling water bath. In two separate small beakers (20mL) of distilled water was placed in one and (20mL) of 6M HCl in the other. Both beakers were placed into an ice bath. After heating, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and filtered by vacuum filtration into a fritted funnel to yield a purple product.
Procedure is to be repeated using temperature of 0o, 60o, and 80o C. Introduction Enzymes are single-chain or multiple chain proteins that act as biological catalysts with the inherent ability to promote specific chemical reactions in vivo, as well as in vitro. Like all catalysts enzymes work by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, this is achieved because enzymes facilitate the formation of the transition state from substrate to product. Enzymes have three distinctive characteristics: 1. High specificity The ability to select and thus promote a particular chemical reaction on a single or small number of structurally related molecules is a key aspect of enzyme mechanics. Invertase is the enzyme which catalyses the hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose, into the monomers of glucose and fructose; due to the high specificity of enzymes one would not expect invertase to catalyze the
These specimens were all tested before being placed into their respective ice or water baths. Afterwards they were placed in four different water baths, for intervals of two minutes. There were five intervals giving a total of ten minutes. After each interval, two drops were taken out of the test tubes and placed into the spot plate and results were recorded shortly after. For both the Human Amylase and Fungal Amylase the results yielded somewhat similar outcomes.
When these factors vary, enzymes may change in shape so it will not be able to bond to the specific substance anymore. What is trypsin? Trypsin is produced in the pancreas as typsinogen originally allowing metabolic control. It is used widely in various biotechnological processes because it is very easy to be purified. Method: Material: • Trypsin • Casein • Water bath (to keep the temperature constant) • Colorimeter (to measure the rate of enzyme activity) • Thermometer • Test Tubes (to contain the casein and the buffer solution) • Stop watch (to control and measure the time) • Distilled water (to mix with trypsin to produce the buffer solution) • Test tube rack (to prevent the tubes rolling and smashing) Protocol: • Put 2.5 cm³ of 5% with reconstituted casein in 6 of the test
For the third part of the experiment, the process of part 1 was repeated using sodium hydroxide. 5 drops of 0.10 M sodium hydroxide were placed in wells 1 and 2, and 5 drops of distilled water were placed in wells 2 through 6. A toothpick was used to stir the mixture in well 2, resulting in 0.05 M of sodium hydroxide. A pipet was used to extract the solution from well 2 and 5 drops were added to well 2. The dilution process was repeated for the remaining wells, as completed in part 1.
5. Describe how temperature and pH affect sucrase activity. Introduction Enzymes are usually protein molecules that act as biological catalysts. A catalyst greatly increases the speed of a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy necessary to get the reaction started without itself being altered or consumed. On the surface of the enzyme is an active site that temporarily binds the reactants or substrates forming an enzyme-substrate complex.