Whoever refuses to follow these laws will be punished accordingly. Locke also specifically states that all societies and governments should be set up for the common benefits and protection of the people. When this is done rules can be followed and the civility of society may continue. In this way Constitutions are created by people who consent to the appointment of men in authority to
On the other hand, the nobility had many rights. Today it’s greatly known that the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were well influenced from the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment thinkers argued against these traditions, and called for individual freedoms, governments of the people, and religious freedom. They were "enlightened" because they believed that humans could answer questions for them, and sought ways to put this philosophy into practice. John Locke, an Enlightenment thinker, highly influenced the Declaration of Independence.
(Kleiner 589) John Locke was also an important influence on Enlightenment thought as he focused on the goodness of the individual and his natural rights. (589) Thus the Enlightenment was characterized by the ideas of rationality and reason applied to all facets of life. Man was free from the restrictions of the church and despotic governments. The major revolutions that occurred in America and France at this time were all spurred on by Enlightenment principles. Some of the key players in the Enlightenment were Diderot, Voltaire, Rousseau, David, and Jefferson.
But the basics of their philosophies were the same. The Jacksonian Democracy during 1820s to the 1840s was the way America was ran by President Thomas Jefferson. Being a former common man, Jefferson gave more power to those in his former position and limited the power of the aristocracies which created a balance. Jackson believed in the power of the president and the constitution that gives him the presidential power. This power caused principles in Jacksonian Democracy including Manifest Destiny.
American National Government Discussion of Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” “Common sense is a genius dressed in its working clothes” Ralph Waldo Emerson Emerson’s quote is a great example of what Thomas Paine was trying to do with his famous work Common Sense. The plain language used by Paine spoke to the common people of America and was the first published record openly asking for independence from Great Britain. There were several key points Paine was trying to express to the common people. The most important of them are: the sole purpose of the government, the notions of monarchy and hereditary succession, and the reasons for America’s independence. Paine used Common Sense as a great tool to let the commoners and less educated to gain some insight on the role and purpose of government.
The Social Contract, a philosophical masterpiece written by the famous French writers Jean Jacques Rousseau, greatly influenced the course of the French Revolution. Rousseau’s pioneering conception of General Will enlightened the mainstream thinkers as well as the ordinary french people in the late 18th Century France. One of those political activist and writer, Emmanueal Joseph Sieyès( 1748-1836) justified the political legitimacy of the Third Estate. He argues that the aristocracy is acting against the General Will whereas the Third Estates represents the General Will of the French people and are thus the legitimate representative of the nation. Sieyes’s admitted the fact that Third Estate represents the General Will.
Hobbes believed that human beings need to choose an absolute monarch ruler to lead the people or similar to absolutism. He supposed that people are essentially self-center and driven by the “right to self-preservation.” If people have no absolute authority on top of them, then “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” would follow. In order to have a successful government, social order must be placed because people would feel secure enough to obey the laws; therefore, absolute authority protects people’s rights. On the other hand, Locke believed that government’s only interest was to protect people’s life, liberty and property. He has a positive view of human nature.
Locke believed the power of the government came from the people and if the people are not happy with government actions then they have every right to overthrow the government. Locke believed people could survive in a natural state with no government but if the people like the government it can exist to benefit them. . (Locke, Chap. 4 Pg.
HUM 2249-46B Successes of the Enlightenment The Enlightenment was the time period in which the many cultural and social changes occurred due to the many thoughtful processes of reason and analysis. Not only that, but it promoted the scientific method, challenged ideas grounded in tradition, faith or superstition, and advocated the restructuring of governments and social institutions based on reason. Enlightenment philosophy also stressed that liberty and equality were natural human rights. Along with this, a unique twist of individualism rather than the traditional ways of thinking could be well-associated with the Age of Enlightenment. As a result, Jefferson, Montesquieu, Locke, and other members of the founding generation were deeply influenced by this 18th-century European intellectual movement.
“… These laws also ought to be designed for no other end ultimately, but for the good of the people.” That explains that what the idea from the enlightenment is that the laws should be made to make the lives of citizens better. This will make the absolute society think a bit defiantly for the reason of laws and will cause some revolts, revolutions, and