Engineering Studies Notes Essay

4866 WordsJul 31, 201220 Pages
Engineering Studies Civil Structures Historical Developments in Civil Structures Beam Bridges • The word Beam comes from the old English word for wood. • Beams may be loosely grouped into two types; if the beam is supported at both ends it is a simply supported beam, whereas if it is only supported at one end it is a cantilevered beam. • A beam may be wood, metal or stone. • The Greek historian Herodotus wrote of a multi-span beam bridge in Babylon (present day Iraq) in the 5th Century BC. • Early beam bridges often used timber, but because timber rots and is attacked by borers and termites there are few left. • In 55 BC Julius Caesar built a 550m long wooden beam bridge that incorporated 50 spans; construction took ten days. • By 1570, Italian architect, Andrea Palladio had developed a truss girder bridge. • Early in the 19th Century, English engineer James Warren developed a truss girder bridge that would be extensively used by railway engineers. • It was In America, however, that the truss girder was developed to its modern day form • In 1847, Squire Whipple developed the iron truss, a design that carried on to the twentieth century • In 1849, the famous English engineer, Robert Stephenson, developed the Bowstring Girder. • In 1850 Stephenson collaborated with others to complete another important type of Beam Bridge. • In 1867, Heinrich Gerber built the first balanced cantilever bridge over the River Main in Germany. • In 1879 the Tay Bridge (on the same rail line as the forth Bridge) was built • 1948 saw the development of one of the most commonly used beam bridges today, the box girder bridge. Arch Bridges Masonry Arch Bridges • The stone arch bridge was used extensively by Roman engineers from 200 BC to 400 AD • The oldest Roman bridge is the Ponte Rotto in

More about Engineering Studies Notes Essay

Open Document