Energetics Aim: To measure the energy released from the complete combustion of a known mass of alcohol or paraffin wax, to heat water. Hypothesis: The combustion of alcohols is exothermic. In this experiment the energy is released from burning a known mass of alcohol in order to heat a known amount of water. A comparison of various alcohols and paraffin wax (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, octanol and candle) as fuels can be made by calculating the quantity of energy transferred to the water. In this experiment, the amount of energy (heat) involved in a chemical change will be determined.
(As you can guess, different fuels begin burning at different temperatures.) Heat or ignition sources lift fuel (combustible material) to its activation energy to start the fire. The fire generates heat which sustains the chemical reaction; the blaze continues and spreads. Some firefighting tactics shield the fuel from air (oxygen) to extinguish the blaze. Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers expel a cold fog of CO2 that cuts a fire off from its air supply.
Tammy Thanaporn Amornkasemwong 1st September 2011 Science Period 8 Introduction: How much energy can be released from fuels? Combustion is the process of burning fuel in order to produce heat. The intention of this experiment is to find whether different fuels produce different amount of energy. In the process of combustion in this experiment, cheeto, half a cashew nut, wax candle and ethanol are used as fuels combust with lighter, as heat and oxygen. When the fuels combust, oxygen and fuels react, and heat released.
It is used to accelerate a hot, pressurized gas passing through it to a higher speed in the axial (thrust) direction, by converting the heat energy of the flow into kinetic energy. Because of this, the nozzle is widely used in some types of steam turbines and rocket engine nozzles. It also sees use in supersonic jet engines. The nozzle was developed by Swedish inventor Gustaf de Laval in 1888 for use on a steam turbine. This principle was first used in a rocket engine by Robert Goddard.
“The increase in the mean temperature of the earth due to excessive emissions of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen.” ( Green) These extra gases are making it hard for heat to escape the Earth’s atmosphere resulting in warmer temperatures. Here is a model of the Greenhouse Effect retrieved from http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html. Ethical Issues on Global Warming There are many causes of Global Warming to include Carbon Dioxide from power plants, cars, airplanes, and from buildings. “In 2002 about 40% of U.S. carbon dioxide emissions stem from the burning of fossil fuels for the purpose of electricity generation.”(Ayres) 93% of electricity generations is produced by coal. 33% of the carbon dioxide comes from vehicles.
The steam brings hydrogen sulphide gas to the surface and pollutes the air unless controls are instituted. 2. Water contains many salts and minerals capable of causing water pollution. 3. The earth in a geothermal field may subside as the water is pumped out.
Chemical energy in the gasoline of the car can be converted into both heat energy in the exhaust and heating the engine, and into mechanical energy to move the car. Potential energy, such as the gravitational potential energy stored in an object which is on a high shelf, can be converted into kinetic energy as the object falls down. In relation to the body, one of the main forms of energy can include chemical energy being converted to mechanical and heat energy. One of the prime examples of this being taken place is when chemical energy such as: starches, proteins, sugars
The main differences between diesel and gasoline are as follows: “a) A diesel Engine takes air into the cylinder and compresses it. Fuel is then injected directly into the cylinder. The heat of the compression lights the fuel spontaneously. A gasoline engine takes in a mixture of gas and air. The fuel and air are mixed outside of the cylinder; once they are both injected they require a spark to ignite.
According to Hopkins (2006), photosynthesis is the process by which green plants and certain organisms transform itself from light energy into chemical energy. As a straight forward chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide comes from the air, along with the midair and water from the soil, photosynthesis conglomerates to produce what is known as carbohydrate (p. 6). Solar Energy produced by photosynthesis, stores itself in a chemical bond of a carbohydrate molecule. Sugar known as glucose is then formed which becomes convenient both by way of energy to be stored for later use in tissues or by way of carbon to be used for cells (p.7). Hopkins, w. G. (2006).
This essay clarifies several parts: how human activity influences the climate change, the role of human activity, the impact of natural events. Human activity that is most likely to have a strong impact on the climate change is the burning of the fossil fuels and deforestation. An example of this is the carbon dioxide emissions. A recent report (UNEPWMO, 2004, P10) stated, a great number of carbon dioxide emissions are the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and natural gas which used for transportation, manufacture, industrial uses as well as electricity generation. Owing to the development of industry and the use of fossil fuels, the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere has produced and the average global temperature seems to have risen.