Elements Essay

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5. Electronic structure of the elements 1 5. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF THE ELEMENTS Table 5.1. Reviewed 1999 by W.C. Martin (NIST). The electronic configurations and the ionization energies (except for a few newer values, marked with an *) are taken from “Atomic Spectroscopy,” W.C. Martin and W.L. Wiese, in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics Reference Book, G.W.F. Drake, ed., Amer. Inst. Phys., 1995. The electron configuration for, say, iron indicates an argon electronic core (see argon) plus six 3d electrons and two 4s electrons. The ionization energy is the least energy necessary to remove to infinity one electron from an atom of the element. Electron configuration (3d5 = five 3d electrons, etc.) 1s 1s2 (He) 2s (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (He) 2s2 (Ne) 3s (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 (Ne) 3s2 Ground state 2S+1 L J 2S 1/2 1S 0 2S 1/2 1S 0 2P 1/2 3P 0 4S 3/2 3P 2 2P 3/2 1S 0 2S 1/2 1S 0 2P 1/2 3P 0 4S 3/2 3P 2 2P 3/2 1S 0 2S 1/2 1S 0 Element 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon Ionization energy (eV) 13.5984 24.5874 5.3917 9.3227 8.2980 11.2603 14.5341 13.6181 17.4228 21.5646 5.1391 7.6462 5.9858 8.1517 10.4867 10.3600 12.9676 15.7596 2p 2p2 2p3 2p4 2p5 2p6 3p 3p2 3p3 3p4 3p5 3p6 19 K Potassium (Ar) 4s 20 Ca Calcium (Ar) 4s2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 Sc Scandium (Ar) 3d 4s2 22 Ti Titanium (Ar) 3d2 4s2 23 V Vanadium (Ar) 3d3 4s2 24 Cr Chromium (Ar) 3d5 4s 25 Mn Manganese (Ar) 3d5 4s2 26 Fe Iron (Ar) 3d6 4s2 27 Co Cobalt (Ar) 3d7 4s2 28 Ni Nickel (Ar) 3d8 4s2 29 Cu Copper (Ar) 3d10 4s 30 Zn Zinc (Ar) 3d10 4s2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 31 Ga Gallium (Ar) 3d10

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