Elements Essay

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1(a).The five most abundant elements in Earth's crust are Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Iron and Calcium: (b) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Raw material iron ore Oxygen—46.1% non metal Silicon—28.2% semi metal Aluminum—8.23% metal Iron—5.63% metal Calcium—4.15% metal http://education.jlab.org/glossary/abund_ele.html 2. The elements in the centre of the periodic table, between groups 2 and 3, are called the transition metals. Most of the commonly used metals are there, including iron, copper, silver and gold. The raw materials for extracting iron and their function in the process Contains iron oxide Function a compound that contains iron Iron is classified as a transition element because it is both malleable and ductile, and it can conduct heat and electricity. Iron, cobalt and nickel are the only elements in the transition metals family known to produce a magnetic field. 1. 2. 3. 4. They are usually high melting point metals. They have several oxidation states. They usually form colored compounds. They are often paramagnetic. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/edexcel_pre_2011/patterns/transitionmetalsrev1.shtm 3(a). Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace. Iron ores such as haematite contain iron oxide. The oxygen must be removed from the iron oxide to leave the iron behind. Reactions in which oxygen is removed are called reduction reactions. The process of the extraction of iron is carried out by the following steps: Concentration of ore Calcination or Roasting of ore Reduction of ore Concentration of ore: In this metallurgical operation, the ore is concentrated by removing impurities like soil etc. The process involves the crushing and washing of ore. Calcination or Roasting of ore: The concentrated ore is now heated in the presence of air. The process of roasting is

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