Naloxone was FDA approved in 1971 and has been used for decades by emergency medical services for reversing opioid overdose and reviving victims who otherwise would have died (Leavitt, 2010). I decided to do this paper for two reasons, one, this problem is not going away. The ‘war on drugs’ is not a war that we are going to win. But with the availability of Naloxone, it may save lives so that recovery is still an option in this fight. Background Approximately 15,000 people die each year by overdosing on opioids, a rate that has more than tripled since 1990 (Wermeling, 2012).
“According to the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and health, more than eight million people in the U.S. are current users of prescription drugs for non-medical purposes” (Alabama Department of Public Health, n.d.). This is a staggering number considering this does not include illicit street drugs. Drug use is growing for several reasons including the state of the economy, different mental disorders, and abusive or unhappy personal lives. Addicts know that an easy place to obtain their fix is to come in the emergency department and complain of some type of pain because the longer the addict is using, often higher doses of the drug may be required. “Individuals who become addicted to psychoactive substances typically experience relatively less pleasure in response to drug use over time, but their craving for and loss of control over drugs increase” (Durrant, Adamson, Todd, & Sellman, 2009, p. 1050).
The Addictive Effects of Prescription Painkillers The Addictive Effects of Prescription Painkillers Pain medication is being abused because many people are addicted and people have to be treated for addiction. Addiction to painkillers has become a big problem in the US among teenagers, the middle aged, and the elderly. There seems to be no age barrier when it comes to this addiction. There are many types of prescription painkillers. Painkillers are powerful drugs that interfere with the nervous system’s transmission of the electrical signals one perceives as pain.
Unnecessary surgery exposed! Why 60% of all surgeries are medically unjustified and how surgeons exploit patients to generate profits Friday, October 07, 2005 by: Alexis Black Every year millions of Americans go under the knife, but many of them are enduring great pain and shelling out thousands of dollars for surgeries they don't really need. In fact, the only people who seem to really benefit from these unnecessary medical procedures are the medical professionals who stand to make exorbitant amounts of money from performing them. An estimated 7.5 million unnecessary medical and surgical procedures are performed each year, writes Gary Null, PhD., in Death by Medicine. Rather than reverse the problems they purport to fix, these unwarranted procedures can often lead to greater health problems and even death.
Alcohol is not cheap. If you drink two or three times in a week, it could cost you up to $100 dollars or more a week! People do not think about the money and spend almost everything when they are drunk. In conclusion, the effects of alcoholism which are physical,
As with any other addictions, it is difficult to give up smoking, and without help most fail in spite of trying several times. And even after stopping successfully, most sink back into the habit only after 2 or 3 months. Like heroin and other addictive drugs, the body and mind quickly become so used to the nicotine that a person needs it just to feel normal. Nicotine is a psychoactive drug that has calming effects, especially at times of stress, as well as effect on hormonal and other systems throughout the body. Inhaling tobacco smoke is the quickest, most efficient way to get nicotine to the brain.
The charge for use of the recovery room is 150$/hour, so (3*150$) = 450$ charge for recovery room While Nobarf has a sedative effect, contributing to postsurgical patients' feeling sleepy and disoriented, Vblock has no sedative effect. Consequently, controlled studies have confirmed that patients receiving Vblock spend an average of 20 minutes less time in the recovery room when compared with patients receiving the current antinausea drugs. So using Vblock will save the patient 20 minutes in the recovery room which is equal to 50$ ( (20min*150)/60 ) Driver 2 – Drug administration and Storing The typical surgery requires three separate doses of Nobarf. Vblock, however, is administered only once. The drug itself is approximately 10 $/ dose, so because we going to use the drug two times more than Vblock drug, we have to charge 20$ more ( 2* 10$) I will assume that each container of the drug will cost 2 cents for storage , since we will use two more drugs container if we used Nobarf rather than Vblock then we have to add 4 Cents ( 2* 2 Cents) The reference value (Nobarf) equal 12 $/dose Total Economic Value = The reference value ( Nobarf) + Charge use of recovery room + Drug Administration + Drug storage = 12 $ + 500$ + 20$ + 4 cents = 532.4 $ Q2 In the
Smart Pumps: The smart choice for medicine Medication errors are extremely dangerous and potentially deadly to patients. According to a recent release of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) report, preventing medication errors, they found that medication mistakes injure more than 1.5 million patients each year. Also, that hospitalized patients are at risk for at least one medication error per patient day (IOM, 2006). Traditional infusion devices make it easy for clinicians to commit these errors. There are no safeguards in place and the infusion devices are often shared between many patients with extremely different infusion needs throughout the day.
That means the alcoholics spouse and children or parents suffer due to the alcoholic’s condition. So while there are 12 million alcoholics in the US, there are an estimated of 40 – 50 million people affected by alcoholism. (Medicinenet.com) Alcoholism stages The first stage is described as having access to alcohol rather than use of alcohol. The second stage is an occasional user. The third stage is when individuals are increasing the frequency of alcohol use.