Since Standard English is usually time consuming to construct and difficult to use, people find it easier to use non-standard English, where the governing rules and grammar are more flexible making it efficient and easy to use. Non-standard English also complements and makes using technology less difficult and more efficient e.g. using numbers in a text “w8 4 me”. Using non-standard English also helps an individual represent and express one self-e.g. Lebanese people using words such as “cuz” for “cousin “ or Afghan origin people using the word “bachem” for brother in English.
Hitch and Baddeley discovered that the time taken on the third task was significantly longer than the other tasks. They also discovered that when different components were used, such as in process 2, the performance was not affected. As this data supports the model of the working memory, I would argue that it
| It is a much more plausible model than the MSM because it explains STM in terms of both temporary storage and active processing. | What is the function of the Central Executive? Least is know about the most important component of Working Memory. It isn’t clear how it works or what it does. This vagueness means that it can be used to explain almost any experimental results.
FCFS is more predictable than most of other schemes since it offers time. FCFS scheme is not useful in scheduling interactive users because it cannot guarantee good response time. The code for FCFS scheduling is simple to write and understand. One of the major drawback of this scheme is that the average time is often quite long. The First-Come-First-Served algorithm is rarely used as a master scheme in modern operating systems but it is often embedded within other schemes.
Two experiments are used to backup this idea: change blindness and the Sperling task. For example, Block believes the Sperling Task demonstrates that our phenomenal consciousness has a superior capacity to our access consciousness. Our phenomenal consciousness, he claims, holds information about all 12 items. But our access consciousness only has space for 4 items, so there is an overflow situation, with most of what is in our phenomenal consciousness not being available for our access consciousness. The outcome of this is that the form of consciousness that we can report on, can attend to, and so on is very limited compared to the much vaster expanse of our phenomenal consciousness.
Within those groups the diversity continues. Just as monolingual children have different levels of language proficiency in one language, bilingual children also have different proficiencies. Although at first glance children learning two languages at the same time may seem to develop language skills slower than monolingual children, research has shown that there is a considerable cognitive benefit to being bilingual (Anthony, Williams, Schoger, Zhang, Branum-Martin, et al. 2009). Bilingual children have also been shown to require less effort in areas of concept formation and also demonstrate a greater mental flexibility (Brown, 2007).
This might seem obvious in a folding bike design, however any cyclist knows that a larger wheel offers a more refined ride and is more stable. Another point is that the Brompton has more hinged points than the Dahon; this allows for a more compact cycle when folded but obviously takes slightly longer to fold and unfold. The other thing I noticed about the Brompton was that it still utilises a winged bolt arrangement at the hinges which might be lighter and possibly more compact than a quick release alternative but will take longer to undo and secure. In comparison the Dahon comes with larger 20 inch wheels as standard, offering a better ride but obviously are always going to be physically larger to carry. It has less hinges and are quick release in function so offer a slightly quicker and less tricky transformation procedure, but its arrangement won’t allow as compact a form as the Brompton's.
The working memory model is an improvement over the multi-store model. It demonstrates how the short term memory works as it explains how we can store information briefly and simultaneously manipulate it, e.g. mental arithmetic. This shows that the model appears to measure what it is intended to. There is evidence to prove the existence of the phonological loop; Baddeley thought that because longer chunks of information take longer to say, this may affect how much the short term memory can hold, rather than the capacity.
Hitch and Baddeley found that the time taken on task 3 was significantly longer because the task involved using the same component - the central executive - making completing the task more difficult. They also found that when different components were used, such as in task 2, the performance was not affected. Recent research has found that the central executive differs between individuals and it can be easily selectively impaired by brain damage. If various functions are used it is suggested that the central
Mistakes such as ‘How much apples are left?’ occur when speakers are forming sentences and changing ideas rapidly. Since written texts can be revised and thought out more thoroughly than spoken language, they can present communicative ideas in a precise, well-ordered and presented in a more sophisticated way engaging higher level vocabulary and ideas than is often presented in spoken language. Conversely spoken language can sometimes be more