Discuss explanations of forgetting. There are two different types of explanations as to how we forget in the STM. The two theories are the decay theory and the displacement theory. My controversial question is - what is the best explanation for forgetting and can we use the same explanations for the short-term memory (STM) and the long-term memory (LTM)? Forgetting in the STM – when we look back at the multi-store model it tells us that the capacity and the duration are limited.
The material that is used to temporarily remember these lists is called short-term memory or working memory. The working memory stores memory in an active or temporary stage and only holds information for a short time, and is forgotten or lost without rehearsal. There are two theories in relation to forgetting, interference theory and decay theory. Simply, interference occurs when the new information causes the forgetting the old information, and the decay causes us to forget because of the passing of time and the decay of a memory. There are two types of interference that are most remarkable in psychological theory and research, retroactive interference and proactive interference.
The multi-store model (MSM) of memory consists of three sections; SM (sensory memory), STM (short term memory), and LTM (long term memory). Information of the surroundings of an individual is moved from SM to STM when the information concerned is given attention. When information is in the STM maintenance rehearsal is required in order for the information to stay in the STM. If elaborative rehearsal is used on the information that is in the STM it is then transferred into the LTM, this is needed to remain in the memory without maintenance rehearsal and as a result of this the information is less likely to disappear from the memory. Research that was carried out by Sperling in 1960 gives evidence for the MSM, this is because the experiment that was carried out showed that when reporting a group of 12 items that were flashed on a screen for 50 milliseconds, it was 42% less accurate than reporting only one row, which was 75%.
He gave participants two lists with similar or dissimilar acoustic and semantic words. He found that the PS had difficulty in recalling the acoustically similar words in STM, but not in LTM. This is the total opposite to the semantic lists, that where easily remembered in the STM test. In general, STM appears to story all information acoustically. However, some tests have shown that visual codes are also stored in STM.
Trace decay theory states forgetting occurs as a result of the automatic decay or fading of this memory trace in the brain. The theory is based upon the limited duration of STM and tries to explain why forgetting increases with time – unless the information is passed onto LTM via rehearsal it will decay over a very short period of time (15-30 seconds). Trace decay theory provides a simple explanation of forgetting from STM. It seems plausible to suggest that information may decay from memory as time passes unless it is processed/rehearsed in some way. However, trace decay theory is very difficult to test.
The process of reading words and naming colour words may interfere with each other and the Stroop effect can test that. This relates back to the cognitive processes: controlled and automatic. Processes that require attention from the individual, voluntary and are usually slow are controlled. Automatic processes are involuntary and usually fast. The theory also says that capacity limitation was unaffected, which means that at the same time, other performances would not be affected.
However, there are research limitations, as only attitude and personality factors were dealt with Yoshida (72)pointed out that this represents a narrow view of factors important in relationship formation. Other factors could include similarity of self-concept, economic level and physical conditions have been found as important. On the other hand Rosenbaum (68) suggests that dissimilarity rather than similarity is the more
Question: Is it possible to have a memory for something that you have not actually experienced? Evaluate the methodologies employed by researchers investigating the existence of false memories. A false memory can be described as a memory of an event that did not occur or a distortion of an event that did occur.False memories can occur due to a number of reasons.Some false memories are constructed of fragments of other memories that did occur and are being confused as happening at the same time. An error in source memory can also lead to false memories. This is where a memory exists but the sourse of the memory is unclear.
Weaknesses of Causal Comparative Two weaknesses in causal-comparative research are lack of randomization and inability to manipulate an independent variable. A major threat to the internal validity of a causal-comparative study is the possibility of a subject selection bias. The chief procedures that a researcher can use to reduce this threat include matching subjects on a related variable or creating homogeneous subgroups, and the technique of statistical matching. Other threats to internal validity in causal-comparative studies include location, instrumentation, and loss of subjects. In addition, type 3 studies are subject to implementation, history, maturation, attitude of subjects, regression, and testing threats.
He reasoned that “commonsense resolution of the matter alone cannot resolve the issue”. He started off by presenting the different kinds of memory and all its complexities, which are simplified by schemas (or schemata). Schemas, he said is “the most useful discovery of memory researchers”. He mentioned the specific schemas and went into exhaustive details to support his argument: scene schema, single event schema or scripts, story schema and central role schema. He also went on to classify three distinctive levels of structure in the formation of memory (lifetime periods, resulting periodization and sensory details).