Effects of Cisplatin and Carboplatin on the Immune

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Cisplatin is an anti-cancer drug which has previously treated various types of cancer effectively. Cisplatin works by cross-linking DNA, which is believed to be the factor which prevents DNA synthesis. But, repair enzymes have been found to destroy the cisplatin cross-links, allowing cancer cell to replicate. The experiment is focused on proving that carboplatin and cisplatin act by activating macrophages which in turn release biologically active cytolitic factors. Murine macrophages were harvested from Swiss Webster mice and incubated in a normal medium overnight at 37 ̊C. The cytolitic factors: hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, lysozyme, β-N-hexoseaminidase and IL-iα, were each assayed and separately added to individual murine macrophage cultures treated with cisplatin and carboplatin. After incubation, the macrophage mediated cytotoxicity was evaluated by measuring cell lysis of sarcoma-180 solid tumor cells via crystal violet. The cytolitic factors and supernatants were extracted from the macrophage cultures at different times. The cells were then incubated in separate plates for 3 hours at 37 ̊C. Then, individually incubated again with hydrogen peroxide, egg white lysozymes, IL-1α, PMA, LPS, SOD, DMSO, cisplatin and carboplatin. Each was repeated three times. After the final incubation the cells were fixed with methanol and stained with crystal violet. The wells were washed with distilled water and after dried; their optical density was measured using a Titertek Multiscan. Normal Murine peritoneal macrophages exhibited extensive formations when treated with cisplatin or carboplatin. With tumor cells these macrophages assume cell-cell contact shortening these extensions. These extensions are essential to the transfer of lysosomes to tumor cells. When treated in vitro, there was a significant increase in the release of cytolytic factors. The

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