The biological explanations for depression centre on the mood disorder being biologically caused. Genetic factors suggest that you are born with a biological weakness which makes you unable to resist stressors, which consequently leads to depression. This is known as the diathesis stress model. The main piece of research that supports this comes from the Maudsley Hospital twin register, where concordance rates of 46% were found in MZ twins and 20% in DZ twins. This suggest that depression must be passed on through genes if there is a high concordance rate between twins which share the same genetic makeup both having depression.
Loss of SMN1 gene results in loss of function of specific proteins required for RNA processing. This abnormal RNA processing seems to have a toxic effect on the lower motor neurons and results in their progressive degeneration in the spinal cord and also in the brainstem motor nuclei of cranial nerves 5,7,9 and 12. Werdnig-Hoffman paralysis or SMA type I can also be related to / can also cause congenital heart defects in severe cases. Studies have shown that patients with a single SMN2 copy, have higher incidence of getting an atrial septal defect (ASD) or ventricular septal defect (VSD). Patients with only 2 copies of SMN2, have higher incidence of getting minor cardiac anomalies including patent foramen ovale (PFO) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).
However, Watson et al found that low serotonin levels may in fact be due to environmental factors. Disorders may also be caused by infection, for example, general paresis is a condition involving delusions and mood swings, leading to paralysis and death. It is caused by syphilis and can now be
Other conditions that cause anemia are HIV/AIDS, cancer, kidney disease, and sickle cell anemia. Primary polycythemia is caused by unregulated erythrocyte production. Polycythemia may occur because of hypoxia. When this occurs the body senses low oxygen levels and produces more erythrocytes to carry more oxygen to the body
This means there is a problem with the body’s normal immune system response. In patients with an autoimmune disease, the immune system can’t tell the difference between harmful substances and healthy ones. The result is an overactive immune response that attacks otherwise healthy cells and tissue, leading to chronic inflammation. Lupus is diagnosed through blood test. Lupus is a tricky disease
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA Introduction Sickle cell disease is a generic term for a group of genetic disorders caused by the β-globin gene called sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) (Kock et al., 2000). The β-globin gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 11, and it is a member of the globin gene family involved in oxygen transport (Koch et al., 2000). Sickle cell disease is the most common single gene disorder in black Americans, and is also common in persons from Mediterranean countries, Turkey, the Arabian Peninsula, Caribbean, and the Indian subcontinent (Wethers, 2000). It is estimated that more than 50,000 Americans are affected with sickle cell disease, making this disease a one of the most prevalent genetic disorders in the United States
Wenger and Wenger note that there are several other recessive type diseases that are prevalent within the Amish community; cartilage hair hypoplasia and pyruvate kinase anemia are two of the major ones discussed. Cartilage hair hypoplasia is another dwarfism syndrome that is characterized by short build and fine silky hair. Individuals who are affected with cartilage hair hypoplasia have decreased cell-mediated immunity which causes an increased risk for viral infections. Pyruvate kinase anemia is a rare type of anemia which usually appears shortly after birth. Symptoms include jaundice and anemia.
The Heterozygotes form of α+ Thalassemia (−α/αα) is deficient of one linked α-globin gene. It is also known as Thalassemia minima. It is clinically normal and has negligible effect on hemoglobin synthesis, whereas homozygotes (−α/−α) produce low level of hemoglobin in erythrocytes which leads to microcytic hypochromic anemia. When both linked α globin genes are absent (−−/αα), the homozygous α0 Thalassemia state (−−/−−) is lethal (Weatherall,
This abnormality causes red blood cells to become rigid, sticky, and misshapen. The gene is passed from one generation to another in a pattern called autosomal recessive inheritance. Which means both parents must pass on the defective form of this gene in order for a child to be affected. One parent may pass this gene on to a child resulting in having the sickle cell trait. This is where they have one normal gene and one defective gene causing them to make both normal hemoglobin and sickle cell hemoglobin.
It can signal something severe or even be related to something as small as a stomach virus. Pancreatic cancer may hinder the pancreas' ability to produce insulin, which could result in diabetes. Pancreatic cancer has many different symptoms (Pancreatic Cancer Causes, Symptoms,