Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pertinent issue today. Events on the world stage
and at the community level are causing people to experience traumatic injuries and stressors. The
consequences are impairments in general functioning especially in relationships and on the job.
There is a decrease in productivity on the personal level and community level. This impacts
communities by decreased productivity and diminishing human resources. Discussion on
effectively treating PTSD includes early intervention and patient centered care and responding to
the victims’ pressing concerns (Bisson, Brayne, Ochberg, & Everly, 2007; Tsay, Halstead &
McCrone, 2000; Zatzick et al. 2007).
In 1980, PTSD was included in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). Lasiuk & Hegadoren (2006) posit that this was an extremely
significant event. The effects of horrific life events were named and a framework was created to
use in studying PTSD. The development of PTSD was attributed to an external cause, a
traumatic event, rather than to an inherent weakness in the individual. It validated and
legitimized the experiences of trauma victims. It also placed them in the context of reciprocal
interaction between the individual and environment, both influencing and being influenced by
the other. This was significant because it encouraged healthcare providers to view disorders as
human experience rather than human weakness (Lasiuk & Hegadoren).
The DSM IV specified stressor criteria for the trauma experience and the individual’s
response to it. It resulted in an increase in the number of events that would be considered
stressors for PTSD (Lasiuk & Hegadoren, 2006). In the DSM IV-RT (American Psychiatric
Association, 2000), PTSD is listed as an anxiety disorder. In order for a person to be diagnosed
with PTSD the entire experience that triggered the anxiety must include certain features. The
first set of features involves the...