Education Essay

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Theory of Functionalism In Education Psychology by Sultan Muhammad Functionalism is a theory of mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviourism. Its core idea is that mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain, etc.) are constituted solely by their functional role — that is, they are causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs. Since mental states are identified by a functional role, they are said to be realized on multiple levels; in other words, they are able to be manifested in various systems, even perhaps computers, so long as the system performs the appropriate functions. While functionalism has its advantages, there have been several arguments against it, claiming that it is an insufficient account of the mind. Functionalism formed as a reaction to Titchener theory of structuralism. Titchener argue that such a functionalist analysis is incomplete without a Thorough investigation of the mental structure and functions, Titchener arguments formulate a coherent goal and helped functionalist due to which psychologist became interested in the function of mind. Titchener was against functionalism but during describing his theory of structuralism, he explains in detail functionalism too. Before him functionalism was loosely formulated between empiricism and the common–sense Mentalism of the Layman. Functionalism was heavily influenced by the work of William James and titchener Functionalism’s Roots Functionalism was rooted in Darwin’s theory of evolution. Evolution is based on individual differences and the survival of adaptive features. “Adaptation” becomes a popular approach to measuring intelligence. “Individual differences” become a valued part of mental research. Functionalists sought to explain the mental processes in a more

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