‘The French revolution broke out in 1789 because of the monarchy’s debts” To what extent do you agree? The French Revolution of 1789 had many long-term causes. Political, social, and economic conditions in France contributed to the discontent felt by many French people-especially those of the third estate. The ideas of the intellectuals of the Enlightenment brought new views to government and society. They thought of not an absolute monarch but a kind of democracy where everyone stated their views and everyone would listen.
The wars meant it had expense and disrupt in trade. Example of this was the west coast ports depended on trade from West Indies and American colonies which was disrupted during the war time. This affected France because due to the lack of trade and industries got disrupted and the workers income was affected by this. These problems were multiplied because the end of the war was followed by economic depression. The political impact of France was the main factor that spread ideas.
This led to further economic collapse that hit its climax 1777. So in order for the government to dig its way out of this huge hole was for it to create new taxes, Calonne attempted to do this by side stepping the parliament which only resulted in a Nobles revolt and a call for an estates general. Brienne became the new minister to replace Calonne, however although his many attempts to try to fix the national debt and end the crisis he was sabotaged by Louis XVI and disgraced. Once again France was at this fragile point in its economy and with the high national debt and the high taxes that the 3rd estate, and second estate were paying it made it the perfect environment for a
Elizabeth made up a lot of debt mainly by fighting the war with Spain which didn’t end until 1604 and so James had to spend some of the governmental money on funding this war. James also wasn’t very good at political debated or talking to the English parliament as they weren’t keen on his favourable Scots so this led to tension there and them not wanting to help fund the war on Spain now James was king. However id James had worked on getting rid of Elizabeth’s debt from the war, monopolies and purveyance then the economy in England would have been more stable. James had financial issues which were down to Elizabeth and what he inherited from her. In source 1 Smith states that “The Spanish war imposed heavy burdens on the country” which is shown in the fact Elizabeth incurred debts of ‘£300,000 a year in ordinary revenue’, and her expedition in the new world lost the English over £5,000 and gave henry iv of France £20,000 to gain his loyalty.
First, the War of Austrian Succession 1740 to 1748, then Seven Years War which lasted from 1756 to 1763 and caused France to lose huge amounts of overseas territory due to its defeat. It also intervened in the American War of Independence from 1778 to 1783 which cost approximately 1066 million livres. Most of the cost for War was supported through the loans Necker raised, which gave the lenders lack of confidence due to lack of elected parliament to guarantee the loans. Another reason for France’s financial problems was the tax system in France. The tax farming system was ineffective and chaotic - Farmers-General paid the State an agreed sum and kept for themselves any extra amount.
Introduction The French Revolution was one of the most relevant events in the modern Western history. This revolutionary movement took place in the last years of the eighteenth century, most precisely between 1789 and 1799. During this period, the monarchy was radically overthrown and the government drastically changed. As this struggle marked a turning point in human society and the world history, France was never to be the same. Causes Louis XVI Wars and Taxation One of the main causes was observed not only in Louis XVI’s sumptuous kingship but also in the disproportionate social and economic condition of the lower classes.
Whilst the revolution as a whole was dynamic and ever changing, the events of 1789 appear distinctly one dimensional in being brutal and seemingly mindlessly so. From a distance, however, the events of 1789 could be seen as merely a culmination of deep rooted economic problems, a loss of royal authority and the desire for political change fuelled by new ideas. As the title suggests, in the build-up to the events of 1789 the Ancién Regime was in a time of economic crisis with the situation deteriorating until the calling of the Estates General with the country virtually bankrupt. In1788 Calonne, the controller general of finances, warned King Louis XVI that the economy was on the brink. Half the government expenditure was spent serving interest on the high interest loans to finance previous budgets.
Many factors influences the American rebellion known as the American Revolution. Though political influences existed, the American Revolution was primarily an economic rebellion, because of conflict over taxation and representation in Parliament. The colonists had strong beliefs that the English government was unfair and often tyrannical. The conflicts over trade, taxes, and government representation brought about the revolution that began shaping the United States as it is
After loaning money to the Continental Congress, especially France, America became profoundly in debt. Those that had loaned money to Continental Congress suffered from the excessive inflation America had during the war, this caused the loans to be worthless. Federalist and other members of the first Constitutional Convention were changed after the American Revolution; the change then reorganized the organization of power to be put into the hands of the federal government in place of having states being able to manage their own taxes and laws. Severe economic troubles produced radical economic and political movements, such as Shays’ Rebellion. The monetary schemes of the states brought floods of paper money, which some of the states,
An unmanageable national debt, both caused by and exacerbating the burden of a grossly inequitable system of taxation. Food scarcity in the years immediately before the revolution. Absolutism and privilege France in 1789 was, at least in theory, an absolute monarchy, an increasingly unpopular form of government at the time. In practice, the king's ability to act on his theoretically absolute power was hemmed in by the (equally resented) power and prerogatives of the nobility and the clergy, the remnants of feudalism. Similarly, the peasants covetously eyed the relatively greater prerogatives of the townspeople.