Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://wordpress.vermontlaw.edu/environmentalhealth/2013/01/27/the-effect-of-hydraulic-fracturing-on-groundwater-quality/ Hydraulic Fracturing. (n.d.). Hydraulic Fracturing. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from http://energytomorrow.org/energy-101/hydraulic-fracturing Loris, N. (2012, August 28). Hydraulic Fracturing: Critical for Energy Production, Jobs, and Economic Growth.
[online] Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/how-climate-change-can-affect-the-reef/sea-level-rise [Accessed 5 Nov. 2014]. Global Climate Change, (2014). Coral Reefs. [online] Available at: http://coral.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/climatechange.pdf [Accessed 2 Nov. 2014]. Kleypas, J. and Yates, K. (2014).
This method was what allowed the large-scale production of oil from the oil sands today. Social Impacts Over 145 thousand people are directly employed in the mining, oil and gas extraction sector, including the oil sands. Alberta’s energy sector accounts for about 28% of Alberta’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product). If all these people were to lose their jobs or something else were to happen that would shut down the oil business Alberta would not only lose about $812 million but over 145 thousand people would be unemployed. Other countries, investors and large businesses would lose their investments in oil and gas of the oil sands.
For example the trade union between Canada, USA and Mexico (NAFTA) aimed to ‘eliminate barriers to trade and investment’ between the countries. This appears to have been successful with trade increases of $570.8 billion for Canada, $919.9 billion for the US and $393.5 billion for Mexico. The increased trade has also created jobs in all three countries; 4.3 million jobs have been created in Canada, 25.1 million in the US and 9.3 million in Mexico. The US has clearly benefitted the most out of this trade agreement, however all three of the countries have benefitted in some way. Unfortunately, many Mexican corn farmers have suffered due to the NAFTA agreement.
One effect of hydraulic fracturing on economics is that it creates a huge increase in profit for natural gas sellers and drillers by opening up the opportunity to tap so much more natural gas than was available before. “North America has approximately 4.2 quadrillion (4,244 trillion) cubic feet of recoverable natural gas that would supply 175 years’ worth of natural gas at current consumption rates.” (Earthworks, N. Loris) Another way it affects the economy is that 10,000 jobs could be created by each drilling site that is opened. (N. Loris) However, a negative effect it has is that it costs about 2 billion dollars for each plant and extra for maintenance and disposal. One last affect hydrofracking has on the economy is it lowers natural gas prices by up to 15 dollars a gallon.
It would make available more jobs for people and would create more of an income for the government. In the United States alone, the Fracking industry has created more than 1.2 Million people, and has contributed to $385 billion in an uninterrupted flow of money within the country. Also, according to the Department of Energy it is said that natural gas resources have gone up as close to 64% because of fracking. Fracking has many pros and cons that can and will affect the states it in done in. On the health conscious side, there are many different cases in connection with Fracking that range from developmental disabilities, to asthma, to even different types of cancers.
This is one of the oldest methods of knowing when ground deformation was caused because of rising lava. We also use electronic tilt meters, this is very similar to what a carpenter uses, it has a small container filled with a liquid and a bubble (to measure the change of the slope) There are different and varied sensitivity of tilt meters, for example; you can use tilt meters with ranges from 10 to 10,000 microradians depending on the volcano and range of tilt. “A bulge on the north flank, this was caused due to a blockage at the opening at the top of the volcano. The magma formed in a chamber on the side of the volcano and it was being pushed outward because the more magma was getting forced to the side. It increased by 7 ft a day.” Earthquakes You can predict when a volcano will erupt because you get earthquakes.
When the water leaks into the ground it may hang on the ceiling of the cave as a droplet. This droplet is known as a minute mineral particle. As the droplet evaporates, it deposits the calcite on the ceiling or the floor of the cave. The next droplet that leaks in will create a build up of the calcite. This build up is what forms the stalactite or stalagmite.
The one of the most important current benefits of geothermal energy is that it is essentially limitless and is considered clean, producing around one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a comparative clean natural-gas- power plant produces. Costs of geothermal energy are initially expensive but much lower than other sources to operate after the initial costs. Drilling and construction of power plants and pipelines can be relatively high but looking at the cost long-term, it is significantly