Ecology Essay

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Module 1:- Ecology, Human Population & Natural Resources Ecological Terms & Concepts Ecology: The study of any and all aspects of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment. Species: All the organisms (Plant, animal or microbe) of a single kind. The ‘single kind’ is determined by similarity of appearance and or by the fact that members do or potentially can mate and produces fertile offspring. Physical, Chemical or behavioural differences block breeding between species. Eg: Homo sapiens, Aves Population:- A group or number of organisms of the same species is living within a specified region. Community: - (Biological community). An ecological unit composed of a group of organisms or a population of different species occupying a particular area, usually interacting with each other and their environment. Ecosystem: - (Ecological system) A community of organisms occupying a given region within a biome. Also, the physical and chemical environment of that community and all the interactions between organisms and their environment. Ecosystems have characteristic forms such as deserts, grasslands, tundra, deciduous forests and tropical rain forests. One of the four components of the Earth's ecosystem (the other three are biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere), it is a band of gases enveloping the Earth's surface. Ninety-nine percent of its mass is concentrated within 20 miles of the earth's surface, and its two largest constituents (in the lowest part) are nitrogen (about 78 percent) and oxygen (about 21 percent). The remaining one percent includes mostly argon and minute amounts of carbon dioxide, helium, krypton, methane, neon, sulfur dioxide, water vapor, and xenon. In meteorology, atmosphere is divided into seven layers called regions (from the lowest to the highest): troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, chemosphere,

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