Also, he suggests that they fortify existing or erect new forts, castles and settlements along the African coasts. The reason he is asking this (on behalf of the merchants from Liverpool, Bristol and London, as he mentions several times), is the importance of the African slave trade to the American colonies and sugar plantations. Already in the first paragraph he starts by saying that he shall take it for granted that it is well-known that “the Well-being and Prosperity of our American Colonies depends upon the Supply of Slaves from the Coast of Africa; and that some of the most valuable Branches of the Slave-Trade will be absolutely lost, without an immediate Supply, and
Van Sertima’s Main Argument Dr.Ivan Van Sertima was a Guyanese historian who is well known for his book “They Came before Columbus”. This book stemmed from his belief that there was an African presence in the Americas, the New World, before the voyages of discovery carried out by Christopher Columbus under the Spanish crown in 1492. Dr.Van Sertima’s arguments stemmed from a belief that there was African contact with the western world prior to Columbus’s voyages. The main basis of these statements comes from his idea of two visits by Africans to the west. These are the voyage of the Nubian rulers of Egypt in 712-664b.c.
Leland Ferguson in Uncommon Ground uses historical archaeology as a lens to interpret African and African American history. African American archaeology was “brand-new” when the book was published in 1992 (xxxiv). Ferguson’s work focuses on sites and artifacts that are considered typical to, and characteristic of, enslaved persons’ lives on plantations in the United States. The basis of Ferguson’s argument is the pattern of locating colonoware and particular architectural forms on plantations. Compare and contrast became an analytical tool to identify markers of race and ethnicity and, in particular, how they relate to similar kinds of pottery and architecture in Ghana and Western Africa (8-9).
How Was Capitalism a Cause of the Salve Trade and Slavery? The Atlantic was than an example of the Capitalism. English investors gave funds to stock companies would then hire a crew and then send the ships to Africa where they would trade their African slaves. The ships would then transport the slaves to the Americas where they would sell their human cargo and purchase American goods. The ships could yet return to England.
change in patterns of religious beliefs and practices. o Examples: practice of indigenous religions in 1450 and its continuation; impact of monotheism in Latin America/Caribbean; end of human sacrifice in Latin America; spread of Islam in sub-Saharan Africa; introduction of Christianity to new areas of sub-Saharan Africa; less practice of indigenous religions. For 1 point: • Partially substantiates thesis with appropriate historical evidence. o Provides at least four pieces of accurate evidence of continuity AND/OR change in patterns of religious beliefs and
What were the reasons for European imperialism in Africa? Between the 1870s and 1900, Africa faced European imperialist invasion, and was eventually conquested and colonized. By the early twentieth century much of Africa, except Ethiopia and Liberia, had been colonized by Europe. The European invasion into Africa was driven by three main factors, economic advancement, rivalries between countries, and. The primary motivation for European invasion was economic.
Ira is speaking of the Robin Johns when she states that, “ ‘by there experiences and sometimes by their persons, they had become part of the three worlds that came together along the Atlantic littoral’ ” (Sparks 4). As I stated before, the Robin Johns fit the description of a creole, and there is evidence of each culture to support this claim. First, the Robin Johns live in Africa, so of course they are going to be influenced by the culture of their own home. Old Calabar, the part of Africa where the Robin Johns lived, was known for being, “an important trade depot located in the Bright of Biafra, one of the most intensely trafficked slave-trading regions anywhere in Africa” (Sparks 6). The Robin Johns, living in a slave trade town, were considered “Princes” to their people.
Between 1500-1800 C.E. Sub-Saharan Africa experienced changes and continuity as they began to go further with their foreign relations. Culturally, Africa began to form syncretic cults that had Christian teachings and African traditions. Slavery continued to be one of Africa's main way of showing economic wealth. Africa experienced growth and change in their political organization and the rise and fall of kingdoms and states Before the syncretic cults, Africa's old traditions and beliefs surrounded deities, idols, and multiple gods.
Bosman Letter: Gold Coast of West Africa in the Eyes of Europeans The primary source, XI Letter by Bosman, is an excellent account of how the Europeans in Africa felt and experienced about the African lives. Written by a Dutch captain or merchant on the Gold Coast in the 1690s, Willem Bosman, this primary account is purely based on what he saw and experienced within the fourteen years he spent in West Coast of Africa. Although it contains some information that might be considered to be biased, Bosman tries to limit the prejudice, and also admits that his account is disagreeable, while persuading the reader that what he wrote is based on facts. Bosman wrote this letter or a general report on life of Africans in the Gold Coast in late 1600s and early 1700s to inform the general public of Western World, aiming at the Europeans who are interested in what was considered the new and mysterious world of Africa. The purpose of writing such a primary account would be so that it can better notify the Europeans who are going to visit Africa so that they can better adapt to the foreign culture, and enlighten the Europeans on how the other side of the world is living while boasting on how the European culture is far more advanced.
Essay Question: How was the slave trade practised in Africa and Europe before c. 1550, in comparison to the Atlantic slave- trade after 1550? What were the main differences between the two periods in terms of their origins, motivations and effects on African society? “A man entirely at the disposition of another man! Open the bloody pages of our revolution, know mankind and judge the fate of the Negro slave.” Etienne Laurent Pierre Burnel, anti-slavery commissioner to the Mascareignes, 1796.1 The slave trade in Africa was one that easily predated the arrival of Europeans on the West Coast.2 The introduction of Islam saw the forced migration of African peoples in providing labor, domestic and military services within the country itself.3 While the trade in Africa before c. 1550 had little overall impact on African society, it set the scene for the harvesting and international shipment of slaves by Europeans after 1440 during the Atlantic slave trade. The arrival of the Portuguese and the growing demand for labor in the New World and islands of the Atlantic initiated the enslavement and transportation of Africans by boat to such destinations.4 The experience of the slave became extraordinarily different during such times, with many intense hardships endured, and as a result, an effect on African society that would last into the times of present day society.