Dynamics of Borders in the Last 21 Years Essay

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Theories of International Relations DYNAMICS OF BORDERS IN THE LAST 21 YEARS. Geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions (governments, states) Some borders are fully, some are partially controlled and maybe crossed legally. Types of borders: * Anthropomorphic borders dividing nations, 2 nations on the 2 sides of the border * Physiographic borders following the surfaces of mountains, rivers…(Alps, Carpathians, Himalaya…) * Geometric borders (in the USA) horizontal or vertical line drawn In the past, many borders were not clearly defined lines, but were neutral zones called marshlands. Airports & seaports are also kind of borders. Border control to restrict the movement of people & animals, goods. In order to cross borders, the presentation of passports & visas are required. But in much of Europe, controls are abolished by the Schengen Agreement. The largest border of the world between the 1st world & the 3rd world Mexico-US border nearly 4000 km. Historic borders Greta Wall of China, Hadrian’s wall, the Maginot line…have played great roles. Borders can change: * By natural disasters, environmental change (rivers, volcanic eruptions) * By human activity filling up the shores like in Hong Kong, Singapore, NL * If 2 or more states agree on dividing 3rd state’s territory * By wars, discussions, contracts, marriage * If a state occupy other states * By territorial expansion on non-controlled areas… Past: non-existing borders Future: 800 nations are waiting for establishing their own states in the future Closed or open borders changes in politics, diseases, economic situation, wars… 1991 dissolution of SU Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Armenia 1991 Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro from former Yugo 1994 Bosnia & Hezegovina

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