Finally the conclusion will be drawn that even though the studies were researching the same subject matter, the difference in methods used sometimes highlighted contradictory findings. Both studies had an interest in researching children’s friendships. Although this similarity is present, the two studies approached the research of friendships in very different ways. Bigelow and La Gaipa’s (1975) study will be the first to be introduced. The aim for this study was understanding children’s friendship and how this understanding could change throughout the stages of development (Brownlow, 2012 p. 242).
There are a few similarities and a number of differences in the Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975) study and that of William Corsaro (1985). Both studies looked into children. More precisely – into their understanding of friendship, how it develops over time and into different expectations children have from a friend at different stages of their life. However, Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975) used Content Analysis approach on written essays about children’s best friend, whereas William Corsaro opted for Ethnographic Approach – i.e. he studied children in a group of their peers over prolonged period of time.
The different methods and approaches they used to gather the information will be discussed as will the comparisons and the findings of the two studies. When looking at both of the studies it is clear that both have an interest in studying children’s friendships, however, both go about this in very different ways. The study by Bigelow and La Gaipa (1975) wanted to look at the ways children’s friendships developed and changed with age and at different developmental stages of their lives (Brownlow 2012, pg. 242). This is in contrast to the William Corsaro study, which is directed more towards looking at how children communicate with each other within their own social circle.
Evaluate two psychological theories of attachment and discuss the impact on children and adults of disrupted attachment and separation. Attachment can be defined as a close, emotionally and meaningful relationship between two people in which one seeks closeness with the other and feels more secure in their presence. (Oxford English dictionary 2011) Once an attachment is formed, a child will display a variety of behaviours. The aim of this essay is to evaluate two psychological theories of attachment and describe their place in the nature vs. nurture debate. Also this essay will discuss the impact on children and adults of disrupted attachment and separation.
Compare and contrast how content analysis and ethnographic research have been used to study children`s understanding of friendship. This essay will look at the similarities and differences between two research approaches: content analysis and ethnographic research. Both sets of studies were conducted in a research on children`s understanding of friendship carried by Brian Bigelow and John La Gaipa (1975) and William Corsaro (1985). In this essay I aim to consider the background of the research, who the participants were, what type of data was produced and the research contribution towards our understanding of children friendship. Bigelow and La Gaipa as well as Corsaro aimed to investigate children`s friendship and the important role which these friendships play in children`s life.
Complementary interactions 'provide children with security and protection and enables them to gain knowledge and acquire skills' (Schaffer cited in Littleton et al, 2005). While reciprocal interactions means 'acquiring skills that can only be learned among equals, such as those involving co-operation and competition' (Schaffer cited in Littleton et al, 2005). Complementary roles are evident in sibling-sibling relationships and have a framework similar to that of a teacher-pupil relationship where the older sibling acts as a teacher, guide and
Lastly I will be looking at the transactional model which helps us link the child’s behavior and its interaction with the environment, or vice versa. This part will also show how children’s temperaments may protect them against social risk. Defining a development difficulty is controversial, as clinicians have to rely on the observations of parents, teachers and other agencies, these observations do not always give an accurate representation, as seen by the work of Achenbach et al (1987) who conducted meta-analysis on the judgments of this group and found that there was a low level of reliability between them; this may be because of the different expectations of the adults. To help professionals who have to assess these children, certain organisations have carried out studies and broke down developmental difficulties into 8 parts; withdrawn, somatic complaint,
Associate Level Material Appendix B Research Methods Matrix A psychologist is planning to conduct a study that would examine pathological liars and the quality of their romantic relationships. You have been asked to provide the psychologist with a recommendation for which research method should be used to gather data on the pathological liars and their spouses. Using the table below list each research method and its advantages and disadvantages for use in this study. Research Method | Advantages | Disadvantages | Naturalistic Observation | The behavior observed is likely to be natural, spontaneous, and varied.Provides new ideas and suggests new theories. | The behavior has to be taken as it comes.Each situation is only a one-time occurrence.Researcher could be bias.
Summarise two theories of identity and compare their usefulness for explaining the real world issues discussed in chapter 1. Part 1 This essay will focus on two theories of identity, namely psychosocial theory and constructionist theory. In addition to summarising these individual theories, the essay will focus on comparing and contrasting their usefulness in explaining some of the issues referred to in chapter 1 in the course material (Mapping psychology, DSE212) with a particular example of disability issues. While focusing on two theories only, it is recognised that neither of these or indeed the social identity theory are exclusive ways of explaining identity. It is recognised from the outset that all three theories mentioned are interlinked and valid ways of adding to our knowledge of identities and diversities.
He also described social releasers; sucking, smiling, crying and cuddling. Bowlby states that these social releasers are innate behaviours which ensure proximity and contact with the baby's attachment figure. However, research has shown that multiple attachments may be more common than monotropy, contradicting Bowlby. Many psychologists have supported Bowlby; Hazan and Shaver (1987) aimed to discover if love in adulthood is directly related to attachment type as a child. They interviewed respondents to an advertisement and asked them to pick a statement best describing