In cultural psychology the mental processes are compared with the society and the individual who has grown up in that society. Comparatively, cross-cultural psychologists systematically research behavior across cultures in different cultural situations (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Critical Thinking Critical thinking in cross-cultural psychology is important because cross-cultural psychology is about identifying the similarities and differences in individuals and how they function in his or her culture. Critical thinking is about making realistic, valid and reasonable evidence. Critical thinking is described as maintaining an attitude that is open=minded and doubtful (Shiraev & Levy, 2010).
The _____ is a personality assessment model that taps basic dimensions which encompass most of the significant variation in human personality, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. a. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator b. Keirsey Temperament Sorter C. Big Five Model d. Birkman Method 3. With reference to John Holland’s personality-job fit theory, people belonging to the investigative type prefer a. activities that involve helping and developing others B. activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding c. physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination d. ambiguous and imaginative activities that allow creative expression 4. According to Blake and Mouton, effective leaders are most likely to facilitate subordinate growth and development by having a. a moderate concern for both the task and relationships b. a moderate concern for the task and a high concern for relationships C. a high concern for both the task and relationships d. a high concern for the task and a moderate concern for relationships 5. Which dimension of the Big Five Model is a measure of reliability?
You can learn about the answers to these questions and more in this overview of personality. Theories of Personality: A number of different theories have emerged to explain different aspects of personality. Some theories focus on explaining how personality develops while others are concerned with individual differences in personality. The following are just a few of the major theories of personality proposed by different psychologists: Trait Theories * Gordon Allport's dispositional perspective * Hans Eysenck's three-trait model * Myers-Briggs Types * "Big Five" Personality Dimensions Psychoanalytic Theories: * Freud's Theory of Psychosexual Development Freud's theory of psychosexual development is on of the best known personality theories, but also one of the most controversial. Learn more about the psychosexual stages of development.
Wiley-Blackwell. Additional sources include Stereotype Susceptibility: Identity Salience in Quantitative Performance, Contending with Group Image: The Psychology of Stereotype and Social Identity Threat and Stereotype Threat and Working Memory: Mechanisms, Alleviation, and Spillover. This article relies heavily on the veracity of these sources and forms the basis of its claims and contentions on research conducted by their authors. This factual depedenance is evident throughout the article; examples include references made to the Journal of Experimental Psychology and studies conducted by social psychologists Mara Cadinu, Anne Maass and colleagues. These sources allow S. Alexander Haslam et al to define stereotype threat and determine its prevalence in everyday situations.
As a result there are a variety of theories of personality which try to describe the cause and effect of the human personality. This essay will briefly compare and contrast two of these theories which include the psychoanalytic and humanistic theories of personality. It is important to have an in-depth understanding of the various types of theories with respect to personality because such a discourse enables psychologists to discover more about social behaviours in daily life (Fiske et al, 2010; 365). Both theoretical viewpoints, while being substantially different from each other, do share some common comparisons as we shall examine below. Psychoanalytical theories of personality stress the individual’s unconscious motivations which can be identified through dreams, slips of the tongue and fantasies (McCrae & Costa, 2003; 21).
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs has often been represented in hierarchal pyramid with five levels. The four levels (lower-order needs) are considered physiological needs, while the top level is considered growth needs. The lower needs need to be satisfied before higher-order needs can influence behavior chart below. * Self- actualization-morality, creativity, problem solving * Esteem- confidence, self-esteem, respect * Belongingness- love, friendship, family * Safety- security of environment, employment, health * Physiology-air, food, water, sex, sleep, other factors I as a person need to communicate with others to get my voice heard to feel as if I have the belonging, need. Being that I was deprived as a child to have a normal life.
Cross-Cultural Psychology Cathy Perry Psy 450 November 14, 2011 Professor Sayida Peprah Cross-Cultural Psychology One of the more noteworthy developments in psychology during the past 35 years has been the rapid ascent of cross-cultural psychology (Lonner, 2000). In cross-cultural psychology individuals from at least two different cultures are studied. This branch of psychology aids the psychologist in using scientific research and critical thinking as a means for problem solving and observation between cultures (Shiraev & Levy, 2010). Cross-cultural psychology has a vision to captivate a common link a culture and its inhabitants. This psychology is extremely complex and is a definite link with cultural psychology.
Journal 1: Personality Theory A personality theory is a theory is an attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique. (p.445) There are many personality theories but for the most part they are grouped into four basic perspectives: The Psychoanalytic Perspective: Freud’s theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development. (p.445) Humanistic Perspective: theoretical viewpoint on personality that generally emphasizes the inherent goodness of people, human potential, self-actualization, the self-concept, and healthy personality development. (p.459) Social Cognitive Perspective: Albert Bandura’s theory of personality, which emphasizes the importance of observational learning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism. (p.463) Trait Personality: trait theories of personality focus on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositions.
Conscientiousness has correlations measure in research towards job performance and how the trait evolved through the derivative form of its own-self the Conscience. Conscientiousness also plays a great role in my personal life and can help further explain my personality and how it affects the people around me. TRAIT DEFINITION: Researchers have broadly viewed conscientiousness by many ways. The Big Five/The Factor Five Theory which was put together by psychologists/researchers who felt that a person’s personality have five basic type traits; which consists of, Extraversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Intellect. In this particular theory, Conscientiousness is part of agreeableness and that the factor trait impulsiveness, and that conscientiousness is a planful, persistent, focused orientation toward life’s activities.
It contains five main laws or principles and each one describes how sets of smaller objects take shape and are processed in the mind. The law of proximity implies that objects that appear closer together will be perceived as a group. The law of similarity defines how elements that look alike to each other can be perceived as part of the same whole. The law of continuity states that points which are connected by either a curve or straight lines can appear in a way that follow the leveled path. The law of closure explains how the mind has the tendency to enclose a space by disregarding gaps and completing outlines.