The first section is the sensory memory. Information is detected by the sense organs (sight and hearing). Information can be picked up by sight which is called iconic store, and information picked up from sound is called echoic store. Sensory memories only last just long enough for them to be transferred into the short term memory. The duration of this section is ¼ to ½ a second.
Outline and evaluate research that supports the multi-store model. The multi-store model consists of three different types of memory store, sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Information enters the sensory memory and if attention is paid to the information it is passed on to short term memory, if it is not paid attention the information will be lost. Once in short term memory, information is either transferred into long term memory by rehearsal or is lost. The recency effect appears in serial recall tasks.
(25 points) • The main paradigms used to study motor learning are response variability and random vs. block practice. Response variability and random vs. block practice are techniques of motor learning that incorporate variations. 3. Describe the different ways in which one can manipulate KR for memory development and provide possible explanations. (25 points) 4.
semantic, therefore this shows that we will only remember something in the long term memory if it has meaning to us. The capacity and duration limitations at each stage prove that each stage is its own separate store with diverse boundaries. Transfer of information that may require re-coding; when information gets passed from the short term memory to the long term memory it has to be re-coded from either visual or sound to semantic in order for us to remember it. The transfer of information in-between stores, also play an important role in memory because forgetting can occur at each of the stores if attention and rehearsal is not paid attention to. Retrieval failure and interference only occurs when material is not rehearsed when being passed onto the long term memory where it can remain for a lifetime.
The short-term memory store has a very limited capacity, i.e. it can only hold, according to Miller (Miller’s magic number), a capacity of 7 +/- 2 bits of information. This information can then last up to 18 seconds, according to Peterson and Peterson (1959). Items in the short term memory store are usually held as sounds although other kinds of encoding are possible. If the material is sufficiently rehearsed, it is then passed on to the long-term memory.
Short term memory (STM) is considered as incoming information from the sense which we attend to for only a short period of time. Only when we attend to the incoming sensory information and rehearse it does that information transfer from short term memory to long term memory. Short term memory is thought to be limited to 18-30 seconds, information that is not processed into long term memory is then lost through decay or displacement. The three main areas to memory are encoding, which is the way information is changed so it can be stored in memory. The information enters the brain via the senses including eyes and ears, it is then stored in various forms such as visual codes (pictures), acoustic form (sound based) or semantic form (how we attach meaning or experiences) Encoding
Knowledge is in the “inclusive sense used in cognitive psychology, information in memory about the world, ranging from the everyday to the formal; often further defined as information about the world that is likely to be true and that one has justification for believing”. Computers are not as capable at forming internal representations of the world. Instead of gathering knowledge for themselves, computers depend on human beings to place knowledge directly into their memories. Computer memory and human memory work differently and there are similarities that help us to understand the way computers work. The brain and the computer brain use different kinds of memory for different tasks.
Outline and Evaluate the Multi-Store of Memory The idea of a multi-store memory, was discovered by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968, and argues that memory can be divided into three separate structures; Sensory memory, Short-term memory and Long-term memory. Information is thought to enter the memory system through the Sensory memory, then passed on to the Short Term memory when attention is paid to it. If this information is thought about and rehearsed in the Short Term memory it is passed to the Long-Term Memory to help interpret information in Short Term Memory. The Sensory Memory, which is uses visual, auditory and tactile encoding, has a limited capacity however, and a brief duration, so for information to be useful, it has to be passed
• The other one is called the R-S-interval (response-shock-interval) which specifies the length of the time interval following an operant response during which no shocks will be delivered. – Note that each time the organism performs the operant response, the R-Sinterval without shocks begins anew. Two-process theory of avoidance • This theory was originally established to explain learning in discriminated avoidance learning. • It assumes two processes to take place: a) Classical conditioning of
Running head: Personality Theories Personality Theories PSY/211 Personality Theories The existence of personality theories correspond to how scholars analyze and assess the development of human identity and behavior. Each viewpoint provides a specific understanding of what cultivates personality and the corresponding factors that influence such behavior. One way to analyze personality is through the lens of psychoanalytic theory. The main argument of this theory is that problems or issues pertaining to psychology can be rooted to one’s unconscious (McLeod, 2007). Specifically, the problems are influenced by latent issues surfacing in the conscious mind.