How do the spotlight/zoom-lens and perceptual groupings explanations of the nature of focused attention differ?

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How do the spotlight/zoom-lens and perceptual groupings explanations of the nature of focused attention differ? Illustrate your answer with reference to named empirical studies. SectionA In visual attention it is suggested that there is two harmonizing types of selection. One is a space-based mode in which the location of the stimuli in the visual field is key. The other deals with objects where the attention is divided into chunks of visual information related to the object. Grouping belongs in the category of the object- based attraction and the spotlight with the space-based mode. The Neisser and Becklen’s (1975) study of selective visual attention illustrates the process of grouping. A film of people playing with a ball was superimposed with a film of two hands clapping and adults were asked to indicate what the ‘critical event’ was. It was found that participants had difficulty in following them at the same time but managed to select one or the other with no problem. In addition the carried out thins study on infants and came to the conclusion that you are born with grouping rather than it being learned. Although some grouping cues may not be innate but be learned and partial to influences by awareness of the visual surroundings. Vecera and Farah (1977) showed spectators to track an ‘x’ in upright and inverted block letters. It was found that response times were quicker in the upright letters and therefore gives evidence to grouping being influenced by familiarity. On the other hand space-based mode was researched by LaBerge in 1983 where through findings of his study with ‘five letters’ he proposed that visual attention is most concentrated in the heart of the spotlight and less concentrated at the borders. This is due to the spotlight having to transfer to where the information needs processing. Furthermore when participants had to take in to account the
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