In one group, subjects were given an immediate test of recognition memory for the pictures and in other groups they searched for a target picture. Even when the target had only been specified by a title (e..g., a boat) detection of a target was strikingly superior to recognition memory. Detection was slightly but significantly better for pictured than named targets. In a third experiment pictures were presented for 50, 70, 90, or 120 msec preceded and followed by a visual mask; at 120 msec recognition memory was as accurate as detection had been. The results, taken together with those in 1969 of Potter and Levy for slower rates of sequential presentation, suggest that on the average a scene is understood and so becomes immune to ordinary visual masking within about 100 msec but requires about 300 msec of further processing before the memory representation is resistant to conceptual masking from a following picture.
Both images have been manipulated to look like cartoons, giving the impression that this is aimed at a younger audience. The 2005 film poster stays true to the original design, swapping the new cast for the original cast. However the leading actors are in proportion to the rest of the 2005 (Fig 2) cast in the image. In the original 1976 poster (Fig. 1) the leading actors are not in proportion to the rest of the cast, this almost immediately gives them a higher billing and more importance than their junior counterparts.
Participants were then asked to name the ink color and their response times for each list were measured in seconds. The results showed that the stroop effect interference extended to color-related words, providing further evidence for the interference and costs of the automatic processes of attention.8/8 Introduction Although we are able to sense a huge amount of information, not all of it is processed. Through a process of selection known as attention, only some pieces of information are selected for further processing by cognitive resources. The reason why we need to reduce incoming information may be due to a limited capacity to process information. Kahneman (as cited in Edgar, 2007) explains it in the limited capacity theory of attention.
Extraversion Extraverts are sociable and active, they enjoy meeting people and going to parties. The original conception of extraversion linked it to arousal (Eysenck, 1967). Eysenck described extraverts as showing low levels of cortical arousal, while introverts were seen as over-aroused. Later explanations focussed on proposed differences in conditioning. Because of their higher arousal introverts were claimed to condition more readily and were therefore more socialised, more sensitive to social constraints.
They were asked to recall words in the correct order given in the sentence. The more sense the sentence made (in grammar) the easier it was to recall. It implied that semantic meaning and grammatical structure is used to help increase amount of information stored in short term memory by combining items to create larger chunks. Participants were able to recall 7 pieces of information. The research suggests that capacity of short term memory could only be enlarged by grouping items together known as chunking.
Vision science is a term used to envelop all aspects of vision. This includes how vision works, how we perceive and process visual information and sometimes, why our vision fails. Vision is one of the most valuable sensory processes, it is also one of the most complex. The visual system is a component within the central nervous system; it enables information to be visually processed and includes communication between the eye and the brain to produce images from exterior stimuli. Being able to understand the visual system means being able to appreciate how we see and occasionally, why we see certain unusual things, such as visual illusions.
This ability to see information and process it can be affected easily by various factors. In this case these factors are cultural. This makes our memory rather unreliable than we believe it to be. Cole and Scribner (1974) study to investigate memory strategies in different cultures. This is a natural experiment and the participants were children.
How do we organise our visual sensations into perception? Sensation and perception a two terms that both relate to how one experiences and understands the environment they are in. Despite being related (and often confused), they have very different meanings. Sensation can be defined as the process in which information is taken from the outside world through our sensory organs into our brains. This occurs through the five different senses – touch, hearing, taste, smell and sight.
Types of Attention Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. There are many factors that affect Attention; these are internal factors and external. Internal factors are the ones that belong to the individual, such as interests and expectations. External factors are those that come from the stimulus, the characteristics that belong to the stimuli that draw our attention. Examples might be color, shape, size or intensity.
This being said, the study does provide results in which can be analysed and as a result help to aid memory. For example, the results of the study show that chunking is important in retaining information in the short term memory; as smaller the chunks are, the easier it is to retain information. Cowan’s psychological research also supported as well as challenged Miller’s research. He concluded that the capacity for the short term memory is limited to four chunks, which also indicates that the short term memory is limited, but not to the same extent as Miller suggested. Cowan's research also supports Miller’s study as his research suggests that chunking is an important factor in memorising information in the short term memory.