The lac operon is a model of negative regulation because an inhibitor must be removed from the DNA to turn on the gene. It is a model of positive regulation because, as well as getting rid of the inhibitor, an activator must attach to the DNA to turn on B-gal synthesis. Molecules for hire 2. Circle the number of each Work Wanted ad that accurately describes a part of the regulation of gene transcription associated with the production of B-gal. Work Wanted Ads: Seeking Operon Position Ad #1011, Seeking Repressor Position Ad #1111, Experienced Promoter Seeks Position Ad #1122 3.
Cell division stops until p53 binds to DNA and repairs the damage. C. p53 is an example of an oncogene, and its expression causes uncontrolled cell division. D. activation of p53 leads to inhibition of the S-phase cyclin-CDK complex. 6. All of the following statements correctly describe M-Cdk, EXCEPT: A. M-Cdk causes the cell to enter S phase and begin DNA replication.
The enzyme that is responsible for replicating molecules of DNA by attaching complementary bases in the correct sequence is called ____________________ ____________________. 27. Enzymes called ____________________ are responsible for unwinding the DNA double helix by breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold the complementary strands together. 28. Errors in nucleotide sequences are called ____________________.
“Both deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA and all types of ribonucleic acid or RNA are involved in the process,” (What Is Protein Synthesis, 2013.) Enzymes in the cell’s nucleus begin the process of protein synthesis by unwinding the needed section of DNA, so that RNA can be made. The RNA forms as a copy of one side of the DNA strand, and is sent to other areas of the cell to aid in the bringing together of different amino acids that form proteins. Protein synthesis is so called because proteins are synthesized through mechanical and chemical processes in the cell. Once the strand of RNA has been made in the nucleus, it is called messenger RNA.
Marshall Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei used mRNA made up of repeating uracil nucleotides in a cell free extract. They obtained amino acid chains consisting of phenylalanine. What did they learn when they asked the question, ”What happens when mRNA made up of only cytosine, alanine, and guanine are placed in a cell free extract?” 10. Explain how the structure of tRNA helps it to deliver the correct amino acid to the corresponding mRNA codon at the ribosome. Sketch the structure of a tRNA molecule, making sure to label the amino acid and the
Associate Program Material DNA Worksheet Answer the following in at least 100 words: Describe the structure of DNA DNA structure consists of a polymer that is made up of subunits called nucleotides. DNA looks like a spiral staircase this is a double helix. Each spiral strand is created from sugar phosphate and any attached bases, when the strands line up and connect the bases also match up. DNA consists of many different nucleobases named adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine. Only two of these will connect those two are adenine and thymine the other two guanine and cytosine won’t How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype?
c. The ribosome moves on down the mRNA, making room for the next incoming tRNA and amino acid. When it reaches a stop codon, it stops production of the protein. Universal Genetic Code 1. Is it the codon or the anticodon that codes for the amino acid? codon 2.
3. Describe each stage of the flow of information starting with DNA and ending with a trait. Information will start with the DNA traveling to the RNA and into the protein. This information flow will also be followed through the cell as it travels from the DNA in the nucleus, and the Cytoplasm, then to the Ribosomes and the Endoplasmic Reticulum, and finally to the Golgi apparatus, this system packages the final products for export outside the cell (Science Daily, 2013). Reference UIC.edu.
Conclusion 1. Explain the relationship between the following words – cells, genes, chromosomes, tissues, DNA, proteins. * * Tissues are made of cells that contain chromosomes made of DNA with regions called genes that code for proteins * 2. Explain why scientists probably used PCR when they prepared the DNA you’re your experiment. * * PCR is the process of copying DNA.
Each DNA fragment is inserted into beta-galactosidase on the plasmid. The plasmids also contain the Tetracycline resistant gene which are antibiotics that inhibit the bacterial growth by stopping protein synthesis (Bollon, 1984). Plasmids are transformed into the bacteria. Antibiotic Tetracycline is added to growth medium, Recombinant plasmid replicates and at cell division at least one plasmid segregates to each daughter cell, some bacteria are transfected