Dna Project Essay

1849 WordsSep 27, 20158 Pages
Cellular Replication and Communication Western Governor's University Biochemistry DNA ● DNA or Deoxyribonucleic Acid is a complex molecule that contains all the information necessary to build and maintain an organism (Miko & LeJeune, 2014). – It is essentially our genetic information used by or systems or cells to create new life and to sustain our life. – It contains the information on how to make all of a cell's proteins ● These proteins are used for all the structures and functions of our bodies. DNA ● ● In humans and animals DNA is located in the Nucleus of our cells. DNA consists of a double helix of nucleotide strands. – Nucleotides are in turn made up of three components: ● ● ● A nitrogenous base A sugar called deoxyribose A phosphate group DNA ● There are four different DNA nucleotides that can be divided into 2 groups: – Purines ● ● – Adenine or “A” Guanine or “G” Pyrimidines ● ● ● Cytosine or “C” Thymine or “T” The nucleotides form base pairs, A bonds only with T and G bonds only with C. DNA ● The two strands of DNA are joined together by hydrogen bonds that occur between the base pairs. – The specificity of the base pairing makes the two strands of DNA complementary. ● ● ● This means that one strand can acts as a template for the opposite strand during DNA replication. During DNA replication both strands are replicated creating two identical DNA molecules. DNA replication must occur before a cell can replicate itself. DNA Replication ● ● ● ● DNA replication starts when an enzyme called DNA gyrase makes a nick in the double helix which allows each side to separate (Freudenrich, 2007). This allows an enzyme called Helicase to begin its job of unwinding the double stranded DNA. As the DNA is unwound, small single

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