Usually a discount of 10 percent to 40 percent is applied to private companies due to the lack of liquidity of their shares. Precedents/acquisition comps: At what metrics (same as above) were similar companies acquired? Discounted cash flow (“DCF”): Based on the concept that value of the company equals the cash flows the company can produce in the future. An appropriate discount rate is used to calculate a net present value of projected cash flows. Leveraged Buyout (“LBO”): Assuming an IRR (usually 20 percent to 30 percent), what would a financial buyer be willing to pay?
Something else to be considered is that when a company uses money for share repurchases when it could be paying a higher dividend instead, the company’s management is limiting your control and increasing theirs. As a shareholder in a company that makes uses of share repurchases, you have to rely on management’s ability to judge whether it’s an appropriate time to repurchase shares, whereas with your dividend, you have complete control over that choice. The flexibility of dividends for shareholders is great, because if allows you to direct your flow of income to where you think the best investment opportunities are at any given time. Share repurchases lack that
Calculate the company's return on equity as a percentage. (0.5 points) 60% b. A company makes a net profit before tax of $5,000 and has total assets with a value of $10,000. Calculate the company's return on assets as a percentage. (0.5 points) 50% c. A company has $1,400 in liabilities and $1,500 in assets.
Given the following cash flow stream at the end of each year: Year 1: $4,000 Year 2: $2,000 Year 3: 0 Year 4: -$1,000 Using a 10% discount rate, the present value of this cash flow stream is: a. $4,606 b. $3,415 c. $3,636 d. Other 8. Consider a 10-year annuity that promises to pay out $10,000 per year, given this is an ordinary annuity and that an investor can earn 10% on her money, the future value of this annuity, at the end of 10 years, would be: a. $175,312 b.
The bid-ask spread is also a cost to the dealer. Reducing the bid-ask spread would make prices more competitive and also lower costs. Section 2 Strategy # Description 15 Better .02 Match Depth All Full No Inv MgmtBid price is 0.02 more than the other dealers bid price. Ask price is 0.02 less than the other dealers ask price. 16 Inventory Management in Depth Cutoffs = 30 When the cum.
If a fund has 100 percent turnover rate that means the fund manager, in theory has sold every single stock position once. Portfolio turnover is an important component to assess the management style of a fund. Each trade (buy/sell) costs brokerage commissions, even though mutual funds pay lower commissions than individual investors, it was observed that brokerage costs can account for 0.5% to 2% assets managed; smaller funds with high rates of portfolio turnover have higher costs. For tax purposes, brokerage commissions are considered as “capital costs” as they are considered part of the cost of the securities purchased and hence are not part of the Management Expenses Ratio. Trading expenses, which include brokerage
The repayment of the coupon bond will be the par value plus the last coupon payment times the number of bonds issued. So: Coupon bonds repayment = 30,000($1,000+40)) = $31,200,000 The repayment of the zero coupon bond will be the par value times the number of bonds issued, so:Zeroes: repayment = 315,589($1,000+0) = $315,588,822 3. Bond P is a premium bond with a 12 percent coupon. Bond D is a 6 percent coupon bond currently selling at a discount. Both bonds make annual payments, have a YTM of 9 percent, and have five years to maturity.
3.16 (ETF=exchange traded fund) a) 138 b) Sell the portfolio and buy the ETF c) Reverse, borrow the share of the ETF, buy the portfolio and give back the ETF. 3.A5 There’s always one price of selling (higher) and one price of buying (lowing), this is called the Bid-ask spread and exist in all stock markets. a) As long as the intervals don’t overlap, you have a arbitrage opportunity. When no overlapping you can sell from one market and sell at the other but this very very rarely happens! Chapter 4 problems: “We prefer to have more money in the future than today”.
The money of the fund is not restricted to investment in only one security but it can be invested in different securities. There is an old saying: Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. This is done to reduce the risk that would rise if the all the fund money was invested in one security. If one invest most of savings in one security due to tremendous gains in that security then he/she is exposed to any risk that faces that investment. A risk of price fall is always there, but losses on some investment with the help of diversification is off set by the gains on others.
c. Internal common equity where the current market price of the common stock is $43.50. The expected dividend this coming year should be $3.25, increasing thereafter at a 7% annual growth rate. The corporation’s tax rate is 34%. d. A preferred stock paying a 10% dividend on a $125 par value. If a new issue is offered, flotation costs will be 12% of the current price of $150.