At this plate margin, the Pacific plate is being pushed under the Eurasian plate, stresses build up and when they are released the Earth shakes. This is a subduction zone. The focus was only 16km below the crust and this happened on the 17th Jan 1995 at 5.46am. 10 million people live in this area. Effects The effects of this earthquake were catastrophic for an MEDC.
As a result of an earthquake in Haiti (2010) up to 230,000 people were killed. The city of Port-Au-Prince lies close to the fault line where the epicentre of the earthquake was located, which meant that the city bore the brunt of the destructive force. A large proportion of the population live in poverty in slum areas, where buildings are built close together and in some cases on top of each other, resulting in a high population density. When the earthquake struck many buildings collapsed, killing people as rubble collapsed on top of them. However, the L’Aquila earthquake in Italy resulted in a mere 300 deaths.
The 1993 southwest-off Hokkaido earthquake occurred at 22:17 on 12 July 1993 in the Sea of Japan near the island of Hokkaido. It had a magnitude of 7.7 on the moment magnitude scale (newer version of the Richter scale) and a maximum felt intensity of VIII on the Mercalli intensity scale. It triggered a major tsunami that caused deaths on Hokkaidō and in southeastern Russia, with a total of 239 fatalities recorded. The island of Okushiri was hardest hit, with 165 casualties from the earthquake, the tsunami and a large landslide. The earthquake occurred in the backarc region of the convergent boundary where the Pacific Plate subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate.
At approximately 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906 the city of San Francisco was struck by a 7.9 magnitude earthquake! The main shock occurred offshore about 2 miles out. The earthquake happened along the San Andreas Fault line, and the shock was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles. The earthquake was extremely catastrophic which also resulted in fires. This earthquake is remembered as one of the most destructive natural disasters next to the Galveston hurricane of 1900, and hurricane Katrina of 2005.
Japan is a country that lies a hundred km from where tectonic plates are clashing at a convergent boundary, with one plate being dragged beneath the other. These tectonic plates are very thick rating, from 10km to 50km and are in motion with respect to each other. In Japan, they tend to move at rates of eight to nine centimeters yearly hence the result is a collision, with one plate forced to go beneath the other. If enough stresses build up from this sticking, then finally there will be a sudden slip which produces an earthquake. Japan is well known for being particularly amenable to subduction zone earthquakes, with huge pressures brought to bear by the sticking tectonic plate zones nearby it, and the slipping results in many earthquakes, some of them very big for instance the Tohoku earthquake.
The epicentre was a town named Leogane; about 19km (12 miles) west of Port-au-Prince, thousands were left homeless and up to 80-90% of buildings in Leogane were destroyed. The quake was quickly followed by two strong aftershocks of 5.9 and 5.5 magnitudes. It was the worst earthquake to hit the Caribbean island in 2 centuries. The island lies on the Enriquilla-Plantain Garden Fault however it was caused by an interaction between the North American and Caribbean Plates. After which the barely noticed island became the centre of the world’s news channels, it became one of the most noticed natural disasters in history with celebrities and normal people alike doing allsorts to raise money and aid for the victims of the quake.
This flood was induced by a typhoon that had hit the mountain ranges afterwards and led to surface run off. In this case the country was affected greatly and more than the Californian flooding disaster of 1996-7 because they has no risk management put in place for that particular disaster, meaning the water could simply run into the villages. Secondly they has been hit by a typhoon, many people’s homes had already fallen into disrepair or destroyed, and the flood just helped more to destroy. The people were already vulnerable, flooding helps pass around disease, more people were at risk, as they only had partial homes. On the other hand in California in 1996-7 they were experiencing sub-tropical storms, it had been the wettest December in a while.
One major threat is that coral reefs are under huge stress due to the impact that human activities are having and in fact already 1/5 of the world’s coral reefs are so damaged that they are beyond repair. The increase of average global temperatures is leading to an increased rate of ice cap melting. This is due to global warming, making a global threat to all ecosystems including the coral reef. The reason for this is that the melting of the ice caps releases more fresh water into the oceans, reducing salinity making sea level rise. Due to sea level rising coral reefs are getting destroyed, as they cannot survive in water above 25m.
At last for conservations margins, the tension build up when plate are grinding past each other get stuck. Afterwards the plate will finally jerk past each other and sending out shock waves which is vibrations which is earthquakes. They both create lots of impact. For examples for the volcano eruption in Montserrat which is a LEDC, it cause 19
The tremendous eruption of Mount Tambora in April 1815 was the most powerful volcanic eruption of the 19th century. The eruption and the tsunamis it triggered killed tens of thousands of people. And the magnitude of the explosion is difficult to fathom. It has been estimated that Mount Tambora stood approximately 12,000 feet tall before the 1815 eruption, and the top 4,000 feet of the mountain was completely obliterated. Adding to the disaster's massive scale, the huge amount of dust blasted into the upper atmosphere by the Tambora eruption contributed to a bizarre and highly destructive weather event the following year.