i.e. The forces that drive it and make us act the way we do. This method has made important contributions to counseling as a whole as a lot of therapists and counsellors, even if they follow different psychological theories, have been influenced by it. This approach has emerged from psychoanalysis whose founder is Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud assumed that our behavior is caused by unconscious thoughts, our desires and impulses which is also how human behaviour is explained in the psychodynamic approach.
Beck’s cognitive therapy aims to change people’s |Building on the basic processes of learning, behavioral |Psychodynamic therapy seeks to bring unresolved past | |Approach |illogical thoughts about themselves and the world. |treatment approaches make this fundamental assumption: |conflicts and unacceptable impulses from the unconscious | | |However, cognitive therapy is considerably less |Both abnormal behavior and normal behavior are learned. |into the conscious, where patients may deal with the | | |confrontational and challenging than rational-emotive |People who act abnormally either have failed to learn the |problems more effectively. Psychodynamic approaches are | | |behavior therapy. Instead of the therapist’s actively |skills they need to cope with the problems of everyday |based on Freud’s psychoanalytic approach to personality, | | |arguing with clients about their dysfunctional cognitions,|living or have acquired faulty skills and patterns that |which holds that individuals employ defense mechanisms, | | |cognitive therapists more often play the role of teacher.
Psychology- as explored through the eyes of Carl Jung and Abraham Maslow When Carl Jung says, “Everything that irritates us about others can lead us to an understanding of ourselves”, he very aptly describes the role that Psychology plays in exploring and examining the processes of the human brain and how that impacts our behaviors and personality. Comparing the theories of Jung and Maslow could take hours since each one had enough to say about what their beliefs were about the human condition. But while Carl Jung focused on how the unconscious affected our personality (Introversion and Extraversion), Abraham Maslow focused on the integration of self (Self-Actualization Theory). Jung believed that there were active centers in the unconscious
They may say they hear voices telling them what to do. Schizophrenia is one type of psychosis, it is a lack of insight, and they hallucinate, and have feelings of persecution. They may have suffered damage to their personalities as a child, which makes them powerless to control their impulses. They go with their need without thinking about if it’s right or wrong or the
|themselves | | |2010, p. 430). | |(Feldman, 2010, p. 437). | | | |Classical Conditioning Treatments: | | | |Psychoanalysis: Freud's Therapy | |• Cognitive Treatments Approaches | | |Goal is to release hidden unconscious thoughts and |• Aversive conditioning |Treatment approaches that teach people to think in | | |feelings in order to reduce their power in |A form of
For example, one psychologist may use descriptive psychopathology to which will strive to provide answers for symptoms or mental illness. Either way, psychopathology is formally used to study mental illness or the distresses which may be affecting an individual. The issues of the abnormal psychology will assist in the study by the way we would use it in the attempt to capture interest, trigger concerns, and demands our attention. It also brings us to form and ask certain questions pertaining to any study. Psychopathology is not the same as psychopathy, which has to do with antisocial
This was suggested by Freud. This approach suggests that phobias are learnt through repression and displacement. Repression is a defence mechanism where thoughts that provoke distress are pushed into the unconscious mind so that they don’t have to be dealt with in the conscious mind. Displacement is another defence mechanism when emotions are diverted onto something else away from the thing that caused the anxiety. The theory is mainly based on Freud’s Little Hans study.
Historical Perspectives of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal psychology is the study of an individual’s emotional, cognitive, and/or behavioral issues. Abnormal behavior can be defined as a behavior that is socially unacceptable, distressing, self-defeating, and often the result of distorted thoughts. Abnormal psychology has many aspects used to help in defining, understanding, and treating the mentally ill. Throughout centuries the concept and treatments have increased in accuracy and effectiveness. Several perspectives have an explanation for the causes of abnormal behavior.
People with antisocial disorder will act instead of feel; they find it difficult to talk about their personal emotional experiences. The feelings of helpless and a scared victim during childhood stage makes them want to scare and victimize others when they grow up (Hansel & Damour, 2008). Furthermore, the psychodynamic aspect also delves into analyzing early childhood attachments of individuals with antisocial personality disorder. Gabbard (2000) stated that “normal parent-child attachment paves the way for the internalization of a morally guiding superego and the ability to empathize with others. People with antisocial personality disorder show abnormal superego functioning and a lack of empathic ability to imagine how others feel, presumably due to disrupted parent-child relationships” (Hansel & Damour, 2008, p.
Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theories are those propounded by Sigmund Freud, which further describe the conflict among instincts, reasons, and conscience. Although many different psychodynamic theories exist, they all emphasize unconscious motives and desires, as well as the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality. Psychodynamic theory is a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs. Psychoanalytic Theory The psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of experiences, the unconscious, and emotions that shape one’s personality. It is based on three main assumptions: 1.