Discuss the impact of industrial technology upon visual communication in Photography.

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The word “Photography was first coined by Sir John Herschel in 1839. The word is derived from the Greek words for light and writing. Photography combines two distinct scientific processes. These processes had been known for quite some time but it was not until they were put together that photography came into being. The first process was optical. The Camera Obscura (dark room) had been invented at least four hundred years previously. “There is a drawing, dated 1519, of a Camera Obscura by Leonardo da Vinci; about this same period its use as an aid to drawing was being advocated.” The second process was chemical. The first successful picture was produced in July 1827 by Niépce, using material that hardened on exposure to light and required an exposure of eight hours. It was called the Daguerreotype. It was advertised as "requires no knowledge of drawing...." and that "anyone may succeed.... and perform as well as the author of the invention" This lead to a craze, but not all people welcomed the invention, the artists in particular feared a threat to their livelihoods. The Calotype process invented by William Henry Fox Talbot was the next step. This was on paper. “Several experimented with glass as a basis for negatives, but the problem was to make the silver solution stick to the shiny surface of the glass.” “In 1848 Abel Niépce de Saint-Victor, perfected a process of coating a glass plate with white of egg sensitised with potassium iodide, and washed with an acid solution of silver nitrate.” This produced very fine detail and much higher quality. However, it was very slow, and portraiture was simply not possible. The invention of the Collodion process in 1851 by Frederick Scott Archer reduced exposure times to two or three seconds. This process required that the coating, exposure and development of the image should be done on a wet plate, not a dry one. The

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