The Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties The Shang dynasty was founded in 1600BC. It was the second hereditary dynasty in China. Shang was originally considered a myth, until they were discovered because the Chinese pharmacists sold oracle bones created by them as dragon bones. This dynasty marked the beginning of the development of writing. In addition to the development of writing, Iron casting and pottery were also advanced in Shang.
Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution The first safe and successful steam power plant was introduced by Thomas Newcomen before 1712. Newcomen apparently conceived the Newcomen steam engine quite independently of Savery, but as the latter had taken out a very wide-ranging patent, Newcomen and his associates were obliged to come to an arrangement with him, marketing the engine until 1733 under a joint patent.  Newcomen's engine appears to have been based on Papin's experiments carried out 30 years earlier, and employed a piston and cylinder, one end of which was open to the atmosphere above the piston. Steam just above atmospheric pressure (all that the boiler could stand) was introduced into the lower half of the cylinder beneath the piston during the gravity-induced upstroke; the steam was then condensed by a jet of cold water injected into the steam space to produce a partial vacuum; the pressure differential between the atmosphere and the vacuum on either side of the piston displaced it downwards into the cylinder, raising the opposite end of a
Richard Newsham was an English inventor. In 1721 he took out an American patent for the first American fire engine pump. The Newsham Engine may have been the first fire pump in America, however it was not the first fire pump ever invented. The first fire pump was invented in Ancient Rome in the third century B.C. by Ctesibius of Alexander.
Rather, the Chinese alchemists were searching for an elixir of life. In other words, they were combining different chemicals in the hope of unfolding immortality in humans. On the contrary, ancient Chinese alchemists’ mixture of potassium nitrate (saltpetre), charcoal and sulphur was not the elixir of life but the foundation of an explosive powder. By the 12th century the Chinese was able to increase the levels of nitrate within gunpowder to burst cast iron containers alternately creating gunpowder-filled grenade bombs. In early history, gunpowder provided leverage for military conquest.
They were exposed on pewter plate. The exposure process took as long as eight hours. He formed a partnership with Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre in 1829 to continue the new art form, but died of a stroke in 1833 leaving Daguerre to perfect the technique himself. Deguerre was a painter who was trying to figure out how to make images with a camera obscura permanent. Niepce had been experimenting with iodized pewter and silver-coated metal plates.
Guiding of light by refraction, the principle that makes fiber optics possible, was first demonstrated by Daniel Colladon and Jacques Babinet in Paris in the early 1840s. John Tyndall included a demonstration of it in his public lectures in London, 12 years later. 4. What is it used for? What are its applications?
As more elements were discovered scientists looked for ways to organise them. Then the French chemist Antoine-Laurent de levier separated the known elements into metals, non-metals and earths. Soon after in 1808 John Dalton, an English chemist, went further by giving each of the 36 elements its own chemical symbols and organising in order of their mass. Then came along Dmitri Mendeleev, he created the same periodic table we use till today. Mendeleev realized that the physical and chemical properties of elements were related to their atomic mass in a 'periodic' way, and arranged them so that groups of elements with similar properties fell into vertical columns in his table.
Until recently, the Chauvet cave paintings in France were believed to be the oldest, dating back to approximately 32,000 BCE; however, using carbon dating of the calcium deposits formed over the mineral-based paint, the cave paintings found in Spain’s are now believed to be over 40,000 years old [ (Than, 2012) ]. There has been speculation that these older paintings are the first evidence that Neanderthals could have been the first cave
The first form of a camera was the “camera obscura”, a small windowless box with pinholes on each side which creates an image of the scene outside on a canvas inside the camera ("Photography"). In 1824, Claude and Joseph Nicephore Niepce developed "heliography" which is a process using lithographic stones placed in a camera and exposed for eight hours to sunlight. Five years after heliography, Joseph Nicephore Niepce and Louis Daguerre joined forces to discover ways to improve and preserve these images. This process later became known as the "daguerreotype" and is achieved by coating a copper plate with silver iodide and exposing it to bright light for thirty minutes ("Photography"). Clearly, this system reduced exposure time immensely and allowed it to be preserved for much longer as well.
Ancient Egyptians were the first people to spread the practice of tattooing. By 2,000 b.c the art had spread out all the way to south East Asia which then was brought to Japan and spread along the silk route. In Pacific cultures tattoos were considered a huge historic significance but when western missionaries arrived they forced this art form to decline, in most Christian churches this practice was discouraged. There were many different methods of early tattooing that developed in different cultures. Some of the earliest tattooing instruments can be found in Europe.