This supports Bowlby's theory of sensitive period. There was another study conducted by Stout, Stout conducted a study of Romanian orphans who had experienced severe conditions and found that they later suffered permanent psychological damage, including no ability to interact with people and increased aggression. Psychologists successfully showed the impacts of institutionalisation; a strength of Hodges and Tizards study was that it was longitudinal so the researchers were able to see how the institution affected the children over many years. However a weakness of this longitudinal method involves attrition, where many of the children may have left the study because they were well adjusted, therefore resulting in a biased remaining sample - children with pleasant behaviour are more likely to be adopted. Some research suggests that individuals who do not form a primary attachment within the early sensitive period are unable to recover, however, in the study of romanian orphans, one third recovered well therefore privation alone cannot explain negative outcomes.
The introduction of contraception has led to couples having smaller families, therefore meaning that children now tend to receive more attention from their parents. Similarly, parents are also able to care for their children better due to the introduction of the welfare state and child benefits. Climbie’s case and ‘Every Child Matters’ has led to the improvement of social services and child protection, meaning childhood is much safer now than it was 50 years ago. Children are also in better health due to the NHS, meaning more children survive childhood now than ever before. All children can now receive state education up until the age of 18, meaning they are better educated and can achieve much higher in adulthood, whilst experiencing a longer period of youth.
Describe and evaluate Ainsworth's work on attachment (12 marks) In 1978 Ainsworth et al studied the reactions of young children to brief separations from their mother in order to determine the nature of attachment behaviours and types of attachments Ainsworth’s procedure is known as the strange situation. In the study she conducted she use controlled observation infants were exposed to a sequence of 3 minute-episodes. The total observation period lasted for approximately 25 minutes. First the infant and mother were introduced to the observation room by the researcher, then the researcher left the room. After a while a stranger entered and had a brief conversation with the mother.
Melhuish (93) suggested that where variations in stable attachment occur, they are usually associated with the form of parenting such as divorce. Main and Cassidy (88) did research into stable attachment types by using a reunion test by which they analyse the reunion of child and parent after an hour of separation. Main and Cassidy observed this on 6 years whose attachment styles had been categorised when they were 1.They found that most of the children( 78% ) had the same attachment that they had when they were younger however in some cases the style changed but mostly because of major changes in
Outline and evaluate research into the effects of institutionalisation (12 marks) Olivia Gibson Hodges and Tizard conducted a natural experiment that was longitudinal. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of institutional upbringing on later attachments. They studied 65 children who were all 16 years old and were brought up in a care home for the first four years of their lives. During their stay in the children’s home they had little opportunity to form an attachment because the children's home had a policy forbidding the staff to form attachments with the children, and so the care given was functional and lacked warmth, also staff turnover rate was high; by the age of two the children had approximately 24 carers each. At the age of four 25 of them were returned to their biological families, 33 of them were adopted and 7 of them were kept in the institution and occasionally adopted.
One thing they expected to find in the experiment would be that the mothers and children that were clinically anxious would have higher scores and correlations than the ones who weren’t but the results were insignificant. However, the expressed behaviors were higher. According to the study and their findings, the results of the experiment could implicate some kind of treatment for childhood anxiety by managing parental anxiety and being
The independent group design could have meant, by chance, the group who were told to expect no negative withdraws, were naturally more determined people, thus increasing their chance of giving up anyway. Without a control group we cannot see how many people would have relapsed with no expectations being induced. Furthermore, self report methods were used when reporting withdrawal symptoms, which are subjective and could be influenced by demand characteristics, with people guessing the aim of the study and trying to give answers to help the experimenter. Another cognitive explanation is the self medicated model, which descried relapse as a result of the individual believing without their addiction they cannot cope, focus on a task or feel bored without their addiction to occupy them. For example a smoker may feel too stressed to function properly at work, therefore relapse and continual smoking occurred to reduce these negative
How to Get "Ungrounded" By John Ehle, eHow Contributor updated June 29, 2011 * * * * Print this article Getting grounded as a punishment may not be a fun experience, but it sometimes serves as an effective means to cure instances of bad behavior. Going through good and bad experiences is an integral part of human life. Childhood provides no exception to some of these experiences. Getting "ungrounded" early may seem impossible, depending upon the indiscretion. However, with an understanding of what you did to get grounded, plus a little perseverance and effort, getting ungrounded may be possible.
This deliberate use of Adderall to gain better grades puts ADHD students at a further disadvantage because there is no other means by which the field could be leveled once more. This therefore qualifies as treating an ADHD student as a mere means. This can be said because the non-ADHD student is negatively affecting the end of another
Mothers from ethnic minority groups are more likely to stay at home with their children. Interestingly ethnic minority groups do have better outcomes at primary school – showing that they benefit from a positive home learning environment which may alleviate the possible disadvantage of not attending a pre-school/early years setting. The advantage of early years education has been shown to be visible at age 4 – 7 (key stage 1) and pupils who receive early education have higher attainment than those with no early education. Strand’s (1999) study of inner London pupils showed that black pupils with high attainment at age 4 and white pupils from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, all made less than expected progress during Key Stage 1. Indeed at this stage it is