As the Reserve increases interest rates, it effectively lowers the demand for money. Increasing the interest rates would be in the Reserves best interest when the nation is experiencing rising inflation. This type of monetary policy is called contractionary monetary policy (Hubbart, 869). On the other hand, to increase demand for money the Reserve can decrease the interest rate. Decreasing the interest rate effectively increases consumer and businesses consumption.
The discount rate, in turn, directly affects the rates at which banks can lend money to its customers. When the Fed lowers the rate, it tends to have the effect of increasing consumer demand for money, since consumers are able to borrow money from banks at lower rates. The second way is by adjusting reserve ratios. The reserve ratio is the amount of cash banks most keep on hand in relation to the amount of money they loan out to consumers. When the Fed lowers the reserve ratio, it means that banks are able to loan out more money to its customers since they need to keep fewer dollars in cash reserves relative to the amount of money they lend out.
When the demand for U.S. dollars increases, the value of the dollar will increase or appreciate (Stone 2008, pp. 685). As a result, U.S. products become more expensive for foriegners causing a reduction in exports and increasing imports. This not only effects the U.S. economy, but also affects the economies in other countries. Monetary policies influence and are influenced by international developments, including exchange rates, and based on these market conditions the U.S. government can make strategic changes to these policies to maintain the country’s economic stability (full employment, stable growth and price stability).
Lower reserve requirements will result in more funds being available to loan out. This should, in turn, increase the rate of economic growth. Conversely, a higher reserve requirement will reduce the availability of funds and should slow economic growth. In this case, we need to increase our rate of economic growth in response to the recession, so I choose to lower the reserve requirement. The reason I would make this choice is to stimulate lending to businesses, reduce unemployment and increase household income so that the economy could then recover naturally.
Going by the contemporary crisis in the Medicare program of America, Bozic (2011) dictates that the solution to the crisis will demand increase in the tax margin on the employees. In addition, doctors and physicians are more likely to face salary cuts to allow proper budgeting of the program. Furthermore, the increase in demand for Medicare will have an automatic upward shift in the cost of insurance. There is a link between the positive effects of Medicare and the Economic effects of the system. The existing economic effects presented by the rise in demand for Medicare occurred because of the rise in the number of aged individuals.
Increase taxes over the wealthiest and reduced the taxes over the less wealthy individuals trying to get a more progressive model. These measures would affect in the short-run the aggregate demand for good and services, stimulating consumer spending, earnings and profit rise. This effect will depend on the multiplier effect and the crowding-out 3. What economic policies should the US Federal Government pursue over the next decade? We would consider the following fiscal policies: * Reduction of defense expenditure.
Monetary Policy is used to make changes in the nation’s supply of money. These changes affect interest rates which affects the amount of spending. Monetary policy is supposed to get price levels stable increase employment and grow the economy. In chapter 15 of our text it shows a consolidated balance sheet of the Federal Reserve Banks. The Federal Reserve Banks (there are twelve Federal Reserve Banks) are really a “banker’s bank” (McConnell, Brue 2005).
It turns out that, while debt reduces a company’s tax liability because interest payments are deductible expenses, increasing amounts of debt raise both the cost of equity capital and the interest rate on debt because of the increasing probability of bankruptcy. In other words, higher amounts of debt raise the financial risk of a company, and this risk is reflected on the cost of all the types of capital the company uses. As such, the relationship between financial leverage and WACC is not a straight line, but more of a U-shaped curve, with a minimum WACC between the extremes of debt utilization. Apart from the risk associated with a firm’s fundamental
These factors can then either increase of decrease demand. THE HOUSING MARKET I will use the housing market to try and prove if different economic theories have elements of truth in it by looking at statistics and facts, or is it simply theoretical and unrealistic. THEORY ONE ---------- The first economic theory states that if real household income rises then demand for a good, therefore houses should increase. Although housing is seen more as a necessity, certain houses can also definitely be seen as luxurious. YEAR NUMBER OF HOUSES BOUGHT (000S) AVERAGE INCOME 1990 1400 11,184 1991 1300 12,103 1992 1128 12,824 1993 1191 13,405 1994 1279 13,863 1995 1311 15,636 1996 1243 16,519 1997 1440 17,713 1998 1347 19,057 1999 1470 19,641 2000 1499 Looking at the data we can nearly automatically see that the increase in income has as a result increased the demand for buying houses due to consumer confidence and spending.
Therefore, this means that the average Bahraini disposable income will significantly increase, hence, they will increase spending on goods and services. An increase in salaries is therefore a direct signal interpreted by businesses to consider in planning their business offerings. A salary increase might also affect the banking sector, as savings may increase, resulting in extra liquidity with the banks, which is then channeled back through consumer loans or financing facilities for the business sector. Indirect signals are causal in terms of not being precisely valid and reliable. An economist will create a conclusion based on a certain observation that has a relation to the other.